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Have you ever stopped and thought about how many different types of marketing there are? It’s astonishing.

Just enter the term “marketing” into Google and you’ll see loads of different strategies.

There are so many options out there, so we decided to put together an epic list of all the different types of marketing techniques.

We've included a brief description, comment, example and extra resource for each type.

Now… this is a huge, comprehensive list.

We found a whopping 163 types of marketing, so this turned out to be a pretty big article. And look, we're not saying they're all great. In fact, some are a load of old tosh.

You’re gonna find the good, the bad and the ugly. But nonetheless, we reckon they’re all there.

You can grab a coffee, start scrolling and get fully clued up if you want to. But to make it easier for you to look up and analyse different marketing strategies, we've put them in alphabetical order and included quick links to them all below.

Caveat: We’ve included any marketing term that might qualify as a standalone tactic which can be applied by different businesses across different markets. We didn’t include industry-specific strategies such as construction marketing, art marketing or property marketing.

Table of contents


1. Above the line [ATL] marketing 

What is above the line marketing?

Above the line marketing is using mass media to market to a wide audience.

It’s the opposite of below the line marketing [number 12], which is more specific and targeted marketing. The strength of above the line marketing is potential reach; the downside is often relevancy.

Need above the line marketing examples?

The clearest example of above the line marketing is a Super Bowl TV commercial. A 30-second advert at half-time can cost upwards of $5million. Obviously viewing figures will be enormous, but will that pay off?

Here's all the Super Bowl commercials from 2019:

What about above the line marketing resources?

Examples of above the line marketing

2. Account-based marketing 

What is account-based marketing?

Account-based marketing is an alternative B2B marketing strategy that targets customers who have a particular type of account. It’s a form of segmentation [and in marketing, specificity is always a good thing].

Need account-based marketing examples?

Hotjar is a company that sells website analytics software. They have 3 price points:

Example of account-based marketing

If they wanted to upsell a product to their customers, it makes sense to tailor their messaging according to which version of the software they have.

The way Hotjar will speak to someone on the basic package could [and probably should] be very different to the way it will communicate with someone on the business deal. 

What about account-based marketing resources?

Account-based marketing strategies

3. Acquisition marketing 

What is acquisition marketing?

This is a marketing tactic that's sole purpose is to bring new customers or clients to a business.

The ultimate aim is to create an acquisition marketing strategy that runs on autopilot.

Need acquisition marketing examples?

SEO is an example of acquisition marketing. It's also something that works in the background.

What about acquisition marketing resources?

The ultimate guide to customer acquisition for 2021

4. Affiliate marketing 

What is affiliate marketing?

Affiliate marketing is the act of marketing someone else’s brand, website, product or service in return for a fee. The fee is performance-based. The more successful the affiliate marketing is, the more the affiliate will get paid.

Need affiliate marketing examples?

If you head to ClickBank, you’ll see that there are affiliate marketing opportunities in dozens of niches.

What about affiliate marketing resources?

A guide to the best niches

5. Affinity marketing 

What is affinity marketing?

Also known as partnership marketing [see number 109], affinity marketing is about creating strategic, mutually beneficial partnerships.

Need affinity marketing examples?

Businesses partner together so that they can leverage different audiences and increase their brand awareness. That's why you can find McDonald's restaurants in plenty of Asda stores in the UK.

What about affinity marketing resources?

How does affinity marketing work?

6. Agile marketing 

What is agile marketing?

Agile marketing is about being open, receptive and responsive to change with your marketing strategy. As the name suggest, it’s about being flexible and not sticking to a rigid plan.

You could say, then, that agile marketing is more of an attitude than a strategy. Inspiration for the term comes from the techie world of agile development, where iterations to software would be steady and incremental.

Need agile marketing examples?

Football fans might remember that in 2013, Chelsea’s Eden Hazard made the headlines by kicking out at a time wasting ball boy. Specsavers wasted no time in sending out an amusing spoof ad that referenced the bizarre incident:

Specsavers' spoof ad

7. Alliance marketing 

What is alliance marketing?

As with affinity or partnership marketing, alliance marketing is about two businesses collaborating. The difference with alliance marketing is that the collaboration runs deeper.

Companies that are teaming up [because it can be more than one] pool their resources to promote and sell a product or service.

Need alliance marketing examples?

Alliance marketing is why you see a car wash at a garage, or a Costa at Waterstones. Some partnerships just make perfect business sense.

What about alliance marketing resources?

Why is alliance marketing effective?

8. Ambush marketing 

What is ambush marketing?

A business that uses ambush marketing will attempt to associate its products or services with an event that already has official sponsors. As the name suggests, companies use this low-cost tactic to ambush events and compete for exposure against competitors.

Need ambush marketing examples?

Tennis fans might remember that Heineken was the official beer sponsor of the 2011 US Open.

However, during the competition, rival Stella located the closest train station to Billie Jean King National Tennis Centre and decorated it with loads of adverts.

The adverts all had tennis-related themes and slogans, so it appeared as though Stella were sponsoring the event.

What about ambush marketing resources?

Ambush marketing: when sponsors cry 'foul'

9. Article marketing 

What is article marketing?

Article marketing is a type of advertising in which businesses write articles and then strategically placed on the internet. Articles need to be about relevant topics.

Once written, they’re distributed to news outlets, article banks, forums, PR sites and article submission sites. 

In a sense, article marketing is similar to content marketing, but the articles don’t exist on a company’s own website. As such, the value of article marketing is questionable.

Need article marketing examples?

You can see sponsored content on many websites:

Sponsored articles on a website

What about article marketing resources?

A step-by-step guide to article marketing

10. Augmented marketing 

What is augmented marketing?

Augmented marketing is the idea of adding value to a proposition via an additional, innovative offer.

The word ‘augmented’ means “having been made greater in size or value”. So by laying on extra benefits, augmented marketing increases the chances of a sale.

Need augmented marketing examples?

You’ll find stacks of examples in the pizza industry, where you find lots of 'buy one, get one free' offers.

What about augmented marketing resources?

10 examples of augmented marketing in retail


11. Behavioural marketing 

What is behavioural marketing?

Behavioral marketing is marketing to consumers that’s automated, but nonetheless based on their behavior. It is an online marketing [see number 104] strategy. 

Typically, behaviors that trigger a certain marketing message would be when someone:

  • Clicks on a link.
  • Visits a certain web page.
  • Downloads a PDF.
  • Buys something.
  • Shares or likes a post on social media

Need behavioural marketing examples?

If you buy a bottle of ketchup and scan a QR code, you’ll get a specific marketing message. In this case, by doing that, your behavior tells Heinz something.

If nothing else, it reveals that you’re prepared to engage with their product and brand.

What about behavioural marketing resources?

What is Behavioural Marketing: Guide

12. Below the line [BTL] marketing 

What is below the line marketing?

Below the line marketing is targeted marketing that doesn't use mass media [so not things like TV, radio, social media and similar things that are widely consumed].

It’s the opposite of above the line marketing [see number 1]. Below the line marketing is more personal and, as a result, often more successful than above the line marketing.

Need below the line marketing examples?

Network marketers throw intimate product parties.

They often find that being able to physically put a product in someone’s hands and being able to talk to them face-to-face is powerful.

What about below the line marketing resources?

Below the line marketing and its applications

13. Black hat marketing 

What is black hat marketing?

Black hat marketing refers to unethical SEO tactics.

Google analyzes websites against certain criteria before deciding what to rank where. There are ways of cheating the system, but doing so would be gambling with your business. It’s just not worth it.

Any gains are likely to be short-term; if Google catches on, you can expect your website to incur a penalty.

Need black hat marketing examples?

In 2013, Google penalised global florist Interflora for using back hat SEO tactics. 

The penalty was severe. The Interflora website was effectively wiped off the internet for several months until the company resolved all their unethical search issues.

What about black hat marketing resources?

8 risky black hat SEO techniques used today

14. Brand marketing 

What is brand marketing?

Brand marketing is the concept of marketing an identity [and not a product or service].

Most businesses know that they have to work out their brand positioning. They need to understand what they stand for, what their USPs are and what the perception of their company is. 

Sometimes, certainly over the long-term, it pays off to communicate values over items because it’s more conducive to encouraging customer engagement and loyalty.

Need brand marketing examples?

Sky makes a point of consistently marketing it's promised to deliver an exceptional TV service:

Sky advert

What about brand marketing resources?

Brand marketing lessons from Donald Trump and Brexit

15. Brick and mortar marketing 

What is brick and mortar marketing?

Quite simply, brick and mortar marketing is any form of marketing that exists in a retail shop.

Need brick and mortar marketing examples?

Most stores market special promotions on every shelf.

What about brick and mortar marketing resources?

3 how-to strategies for your brick and mortar marketing

16. Business to business [B2B] marketing 

What is business to business marketing?

Quite simply, B2B marketing happens when one business markets a product or service to another.

Need business to business marketing examples?

Lots of businesses market what they sell to other companies. For instance, insurance companies offer cover to shops [for both staff and consumers].

What about business to business marketing resources?

What makes B2B marketing special?

17. Business to consumer [B2C] marketing 

What is business to consumer marketing?

B2C marketing refers to any marketing that’s specifically dedicated to consumers.

Need business to consumer marketing examples?

Obviously, consumers are marketed to everywhere, all day and all night. Clothes outlet Next publish adverts that speak to a certain carefully thought out persona.

What about business to consumer marketing resources?

5 ideas to create profitable B2C marketing campaigns

18. Business to people [B2P] marketing 

What is business to people marketing?

Business to people marketing is a B2B marketing strategy which recognises that, in reality, it's not the businesses [as entities] that are buying what you're trying to sell.

It's actually still people that are doing the purchasing [in the form of decision makers].

This shift in perspective results in bespoke, personal marketing [which is always more effective].

Need business to people marketing examples?

If an insurance company was trying to sell cover to a shop, there's little point in just popping a flyer through the door or ringing any old person on the phone.

They'd be better off doing some research and finding out who would be in charge of making this sort of decision. From there, the insurance company can build up a persona and communicate a more meaningful message.

What about business to people marketing resources?

Time to ditch B2B and think B2P

19. Buzz marketing 

What is buzz marketing?

Buzz marketing is marketing that seeks to induce drama, excitement and anticipation about a product.

When it works, buzz marketing is amazing.

The trouble is, if you get a campaign wrong, everything can fall flat. A poor result can even wreak havoc with your brand image.

Need buzz marketing examples?

Apple is great at buzz marketing. They sell great gadgets, but have nevertheless mastered the art of building excitement without saying much.

Buzz marketing example

What about buzz marketing resources?

The 6 buttons for buzz marketing success


20. Call centre marketing 

What is call centre marketing?

Call centre marketing happens when a business authorizes a specialist company [a call centre or contact centre] to cold call people [and market a product or service].

Need call centre marketing examples?

Let’s suppose an accountancy firm wanted to advertise their services. And let’s also imagine that they wanted to market their brand to small businesses.

If they felt that cold calling was their best play, they face a couple of problems.

Firstly, there’s the logistical issue of making the calls. How long is it going to take to get the phone numbers and make the calls? Who is going to do it?

Secondly, what constitutes a good cold call? Not everyone can do it; there’s obviously a knack to marketing to strangers over the phone. One solution is to use a call centre to cold call people for you.

This is call centre marketing.

What about call centre marketing resources?

3 ways to connect marketing with your contact centre

21. Call to action [CTA] marketing 

What is call to action marketing?

This is the name given to any online marketing collateral that prompts someone to take a specific action. So, we're talking about any banners, buttons, copy or graphics that ask users to do something [like download a PDF, subscribe to a newsletter or click a link].

Typically, this action would lead to the user entering some sort of sales funnel.

Need call to action marketing examples?

You can see call-to-action marketing on the majority of websites.

What about call to action marketing resources?

3 call-to-action examples you can’t help but click

22. Catalogue marketing 

What is catalogue marketing?

Catalogue marketing is the act of using a catalogue to showcase products or services. It’s a type of direct marketing [see number 48] that’s most popular with mail order retailers.

Catalogue marketing might seem like a slightly old fashioned form of marketing, but, perhaps surprisingly, research indicates the people still like being able to thumb through a catalogue.

There’s something about physical marketing that works.

Need catalogue marketing examples?

Step forward Argos… 

What about catalogue marketing resources?

Why catalogues are an essential sales and marketing tool

23. Cause marketing 

What is cause marketing?

Cause marketing is attaching some sort of charitable or inspirational angle to a product, service or brand. Crucially, cause marketing only works when you find a cause that both the business and its customers care about.

Need cause marketing examples?

Reebok teamed up with Avon 39. The Avon 39 Walk to End Breast Cancer is a 39-mile walk to raise awareness and funding for breast cancer.

Reebok is a national sponsor. Avon 39 gets significant visibility and cash, whilst being associated with such a worthy cause enhances Reebok’s brand.

What about cause marketing resources?

Cause marketing: the complete guide for data-driven marketers

24. Celebrity marketing 

What is celebrity marketing?

Celebrity marketing means getting a celebrity to endorse a product or service.

The logic is that celebrity endorsements increase sales because consumers can connect and identify with someone. In other words, to them, it feels like they’re buying from the celebrity and not a faceless business.

Interestingly, although this tactic is known as celebrity marketing, a product doesn’t need an endorsement from a famous superstar. The ‘celebrity’ just needs to be a person who is well known to the target audience.

Need celebrity marketing examples?

Sky Sports used David Beckham in their ads for a long time:

David Beckham and Sky Sports

25. Channel marketing 

What is channel marketing?

Channel marketing is any marketing strategy that helps a product or service reach the consumer in a quicker, more efficient way.

In business, a ‘channel’ is all the activities and people involved in taking something from production to consumption. That’s stuff like manufacturers, wholesalers, distributors, retailers, marketing collateral and suchlike.

Need channel marketing examples?

Advertising at a trade show is a form of channel marketing, since the result of partnering with a retailer would result in an item reaching customers quicker.

What about channel marketing resources?

7 steps for channel marketing success

26. Close range marketing [CRM]

What is close range marketing?

Brands who like close range marketing use WiFi or Bluetooth to send promotional messages to customers’ smartphones or tablets. This is usually an in-store experience, because the customer’s device must be within range of the shop’s transmitter or beacon.

Also known as proximity marketing [number 123], close range marketing is a very modern strategy.

Need close range marketing examples?

If you find yourself wandering near a KFC and receiving an advert for a burrito, you now know the type of marketing you’ve seen.

What about close range marketing resources?

8 reasons why close range marketing matters

27. Closed loop marketing 

What is closed loop marketing?

Closed loop marketing is the act of using information and performance data to produce more effective marketing strategies.

By analysing what’s working with a campaign and what isn’t, a business can eliminate a degree of guesswork from their next project. As the phrase goes, this reduces uncertainty and ‘closes the loop’.

Need closed loop marketing examples?

Suppose a business had 10 blog posts lined up in their editorial calendar, all on different subjects.

They could post them and go into their Google Analytics account to see how they each performed. This data is valuable because it can reveal which issues a company’s audience is more interested in.

In turn, that can fine tune sales strategies going forward.

What about closed loop marketing resources?

How closed loop marketing works

28. Cloud marketing 

What is cloud marketing?

Cloud marketing is simply using all the modern tools on the internet to continually connect with and market to customers.

Today, businesses are able to surface the same marketing message in multiple places. So you might see one ad advert in an email, on a website, on Twitter, on YouTube, or in your Facebook feed.

Need cloud marketing examples?

Dunkin’ Donuts often serve up tempting messages in a variety of mediums.

What about cloud marketing resources?

What is cloud marketing?

29. Communal marketing 

What is communal marketing?

Communal marketing happens when a business uses customers' stories about a product or service for promotional purposes. It’s marketing that aims to create a deeper bond between a business and its customers. It’s very effective because the people are real.

When they talk about their experiences, it helps non-customers identify with the product easier. They can see themselves feeling and experiencing the same things.

Need communal marketing examples?

Content tool Buzzsumo has some great testimonials on their website and they do a great job of selling their product.

Communal marketing example

What about communal marketing resources?

3 examples of communal and sensory marketing

30. Community marketing 

What is community marketing?

Community marketing is any marketing that concentrates on an existing customer [as opposed to new customers].

Sometimes known as loyalty marketing [see number 88], community marketing is useful because the cost of maintaining a customer will always be cheaper than the cost of acquiring a new one.

Need community marketing examples?

O2 does a good job or rewarding customer loyalty. It frequently hands over multiple perks to all their customers, both new and old.

What about community marketing resources?

Community marketing guides, white papers and webinars

31. Computational marketing 

What is computational marketing?

Computational marketing uses computer technology to make marketing more efficient. Businesses that hold information about customers can use computers to match up the right people with the right marketing campaign.

In theory, it sounds great. Trouble is, companies often find themselves holding inconsistent levels of profile data.

They can access lots of information about some people, but hold nothing but a name for others.

That reduces the success of the algorithm substantially.

Need computational marketing examples?

Say someone manages a supermarket and they want to promote a range of shower gels. If they have a database with details of 10,000 customers, they could use computer software to analyse their buying habits.

If it shows them 1,000 people who have bought shower gels in the past 6 months, they could market only to them [and expect more higher success].

That’s computational marketing.

What about computational marketing resources?

Introduction to computational advertising

32. Concentrated marketing 

What is concentrated marketing?

Concentrated marketing happens when a company has developed a product specifically for a very well defined market.

Need concentrated marketing examples?

Being one of the first car manufacturers to enter the hybrid market, Toyota used concentrated marketing strategies back in 2000. The Prius was advertised to people who cared about green issues because it was a highly relevant angle.

What about concentrated marketing resources?

Concentrated marketing - what is it?

33. Consumer marketing 

What is consumer marketing?

Consumer marketing is straightforward: it’s marketing directly to consumers. Quite simply, it’s the most common type of marketing.

Need consumer marketing examples?

Take a look around. Consumer marketing is everywhere. It's online and offline. It’s in shops, in the street… even in public toilets.

What consumer buzz marketing resources?

The future of consumer marketing is personal

34. Content marketing 

What is content marketing?

Content marketing means creating and distributing content with the aim of driving positive action.

It’s a long-term strategy. Rather than focus on selling, content marketing must deliver value to the target audience first. This enhances the brand perception and nourishes the relationship between the business and the consumer. 

Content marketing typically means blogging [but blogging with a specific purpose].

Need content marketing examples?

The company Whole Foods Market made a clever move by creating an article on how to save money on a weekly shop. It doesn't advertise any of their products, but it was a useful and popular piece of content:

Content marketing in action

35. Contextual marketing 

What is contextual marketing?

Contextual marketing is the strategy of personalising the online marketing content that a user sees, based on who they are and what they’re doing.

Need contextual marketing examples?

Two such contextual marketing techniques are SEO and retargeting.

The whole premise of search engine optimisation is based on context. If a user fires up Google and enters a term, they should see relevant search results [and adverts].

Meanwhile, business that retarget people can follow users around the internet [and surface ads to them] without any direct contact. For instance, suppose I’m looking to buy a new sofa and I go to a website that sells sofas.

If that company has retargeting set up, when I leave their site and go somewhere else, they can continue to show me sofa ads. Contextual marketing allows brands to sell the right product to the right person at the right time. 

What about contextual marketing resources?

4 examples of contextual marketing and what it means for you

36. Conversational marketing 

What is conversational marketing?

Conversational marketing revolves around talking to people. Smart brands know that selling is easier when a business has a good relationship with their target audience.

Ultimately, when we feel that we can talk directly with a brand, that’s a good thing. Conversational marketing lends itself well to the modern business because of the two-way nature of the internet.

Need conversational marketing examples?

Feel-good conversations can be very simple:

Levis talking on Twitter

What about conversational marketing resources?

Why should we care about conversational marketing?

37. Conversion rate marketing 

What is conversion rate marketing?

Conversion rate marketing is any form of marketing that’s judged by how much money it makes [it’s conversion rate]. The advantage of conversion rate marketing is that it’s very honest.

Need conversional rate marketing examples?

The success of any PPC strategy depends on the conversion rate of the campaign in question. Let's take a random PPC campaign. Suppose it costs us $1 every time someone clicks on our link and that the price of our product is $100.

If our conversion rate is 5%, then for every $500 we spend, we know that we're going to make $2,500 [a profit of $2,000]. But if the conversion rate is 1%, we make $500 and only break even.

Conversion rate marketing revolves around numbers and making sure that every campaign is as good as it can be so that you’re generating the possible best ROI.

What about conversion rate marketing resources?

The importance of conversion

38. Cooperative marketing 

What is cooperative marketing?

Cooperative marketing happens when 2 or more companies team up to sell a product or service. That collaboration could happen in a number of ways.

Of course, multiple businesses may come up with an agreement to sell a product.

But also, cooperative marketing could be as simple as pooling resources [such as time, money, knowledge or expertise].

Need cooperative marketing examples?

Shopper marketing [see number 140] can sometimes be considered to be a type of cooperative marketing.

Manufacturers know more about the products they make than the retailers who sell the item. So if they team up, a retailer may be able to market products more effectively.

What about cooperative marketing resources?

What is the importance of cooperative marketing?

39. Corporate marketing 

What is corporate marketing?

Corporate marketing is about marketing [and managing] brand perception. Corporate marketing is more about a high level interpretation of a brand than it is about how an individual product or service is marketed.

Need corporate marketing examples?

Nike's tagline 'Just do it' is an extremely impressionable and inspirational phrase that represents what Nike is about without explicitly describing it.

What about corporate marketing resources?

What is a corporate marketing strategy?

40. Cross media marketing 

What is cross media marketing?

Quite simply, cross media marketing refers to putting a marketing message in front of a customer in a variety of forms. Usually, that means print, email, mobile and online.

The challenge for marketers is that we’re all inundated with advertising every day.

People tune out to the majority of ads. 

Cross media marketing aims is to continually catch customers and put a company’s name or product in front of them [without being annoying or invasive.]

Need cross media marketing examples?

Suppose you want to order a pizza.

You see a flyer with a QR code. If you scan the QR code, you’re probably going to be taken to a particular landing page. If you register, expect an offer of some sort.

After that, you’ll most likely be invited to join some sort of community [maybe a Facebook group], where you’ll receive more discounts.

What about cross media marketing resources?

What is cross media marketing and how does it fit in with paper?

41. Cultural marketing 

What is cultural marketing?

Cultural marketing is marketing that’s specifically geared towards a particular culture or demographic.

This is the most effective type of marketing segmentation. Cultural marketing is also known as diversity marketing [see number 51],  ethnic marketing [see number 58] or multicultural marketing [see number 91].

Need cultural marketing examples?

As a make-up business, L’Oreal’s range of products lends itself very well to cultural marketing.

What about cultural marketing resources?

Cultural influences on marketing strategies


42. Data marketing 

What is data marketing?

Data marketing is using large sets of data to improve the accuracy and effectiveness of marketing campaigns. 

It’s similar to database marketing [see number 43], but data marketing puts a greater emphasis on behavioural patterns and trends.

Need data marketing examples?

Macy’s has real-time pricing on its website. It uses big data to adjust the prices of almost 73 million products. The adjustments are made according to user behavior.

What about data marketing resources?

10 ways big data is revolutionizing marketing and sales

43. Database marketing 

What is database marketing?

Database marketing is the process of collecting and analysing customer information to implement marketing strategies that make money. A business can use a database of customers [or potential customers] to segment their audience and create personalised marketing messages.

It’s a form of direct marketing [see number 48] that can be executed with any method.

Need database marketing examples?

Suppose that you have a Sky TV subscription. More specifically, a Sky Sports subscription. If Sky was to communicate with you, there’s no point in them trying to get you to watch Sky One shows.

The information that they hold about you in whatever database they use should show them that I like sport. 

That means they can show me more relevant ads, such as  for sports programmes or an upsell for a sports box office event [such as a boxing match].

What about database marketing resources?

Marketing with your database

44. De-marketing 

What is de-marketing?

As strange as it might sound, businesses sometimes market certain offers and promotions to reduce demand or limit growth. Normally, this happens in a retail environment.

[And there is a tactical reason why this happens; it’s not complete madness.] A supermarket might heavily advertise an offer that’s only available on Saturdays, so as to avoid overcrowding on Sundays.

Need de-marketing examples?

Clothing company Patagonia made a short film called ‘Worn Wear’ that encouraged customers to fix their clothes rather than buy new ones.

On the surface, this would appear counter productive. However, the beauty of this video is that it had the opposite effect.

Aside from showing integrity, the film differentiated and strengthened the Patagonia brand by highlighting how durable and long-lasting Patagonia clothes can be.

What about de-marketing resources?

6 reasons for turning away customers

45. Defensive marketing 

What is defensive marketing?

Defensive marketing is any form of marketing that is designed to protect a company's position in a market.

Maybe a start-up needs to grow. Or an innovative business has developed an amazing product with a brilliant USP.

Perhaps a company has seen a new rival emerge.

Need defensive marketing examples?

For a long time, Sky TV had a monopoly on English football, but when it was forced to hand over a selection of games to a rival broadcaster, it became necessary to tailor some of their marketing accordingly.

Instead of just talking about football, they had to start talking about rugby, tennis and so on. This is defensive marketing at its best. Campaigns began to focus on the breadth of Sky’s sports coverage. 

What about defensive marketing resources?

Defending your market share

46. Differential marketing 

What is differential marketing?

Differential marketing is any marketing strategy that is tweaked to target more than one audience.

The variable could be price, customer experience or even the product itself.

Need differential marketing examples?

A sports company might bring out a running shoe with a cushioned heel to lessen impact for long-distance runners. It might also bring out a lighter version with less cushioning for those who are more focused on speed.

What about differential marketing resources?

What’s the difference between differentiated and undifferentiated marketing strategies?

47. Digital marketing 

What is digital marketing?

Digital marketing is marketing that uses digital technology, such as websites, TVs, smartphones, tablets, billboards and display advertising.

Need digital marketing examples?

Take a look around the next time you take a train, walk through a busy city or drive down the motorway - there are billboards and digital signage examples everywhere.

What about digital marketing resources?

24 resources and tools to inspire digital marketing beginners

48. Direct marketing 

What is direct marketing?

Direct marketing is using a range of mediums to sell products or services directly to consumers [as opposed to selling via a retailer].

Need direct marketing examples?

Direct marketing takes place when you’re able to communicate one-to-one with a customer. Typically, that might mean using one of the following techniques:

  • Cold-calling
  • Mail order catalogues
  • Text messages
  • TV and radio ads
  • Fliers
  • Newspaper and magazine adverts

This Guinness TV commercial is direct marketing in action:

What about direct marketing resources?

The Direct Marketing Association [DMA]

49. Direct mail marketing 

What is direct mail marketing?

Direct mail marketing is communicating with audiences via flyers and letters through the post. Companies will usually send marketing collateral to a particular demographic.

Need direct mail marketing examples?

We're sure you don't need an example of annoying direct mail. We're all pretty sick of the rubbish that constantly gets pushed through our letterbox.

What about direct mail marketing resources?

Direct mail marketing tips, articles and resources

50. Disruptive marketing 

What is disruptive marketing?

Disruptive marketing is all about finding a new and better angle for a product, either from adapting a marketing strategy, altering a product or creating something innovative that completely changes a while industry.

Need disruptive marketing examples?

Apple is the perfect example of a company spotting a problem within an industry, adapting and disrupting the status quo.

With iTunes, Apple created an infrastructure when consumers could buy music from them, not from shops. It singlehandedly killed CDs [as well as provided the final nail in the coffin for cassettes and vinyl records].

What about disruptive marketing resources?

25 brands that hit the mark with disruptive marketing

51. Diversity marketing 

What is diversity marketing?

Diversity marketing is more commonly known as cultural marketing [see number 41], ethnic marketing [see number 58] or multicultural marketing [see number 91].

It refers to acknowledging that consumers have diverse backgrounds and that by tailoring messaging, businesses can potentially make more sales.

Need diversity marketing examples?

Because they deal with a lot of different skin types, L'Oreal market their makeup products effectively to people of various backgrounds. 

Diversity marketing example

What about diversity marketing resources?

Diversity marketing needs to be more than skin deep

52. Door-to-door marketing 

What is door-to-door marketing?

Door-to-door marketing is the technique of going from one house to another, pitching a product or service.

Need door-to-door marketing examples?

Double-glazing is one of the commodities most commonly associated with door-to-door marketing.

What about door-to-door marketing resources?

Door-to-door selling as the first step to billions

53. Drip marketing 

What is drip marketing?

Drip marketing is sending out a scheduled set of promotional emails to a mailing list [advertising a product or service]. It’s basically automated email marketing [see number 55].

Need drip marketing examples?

A drip marketing campaign is associated with a lead magnet.

You see something you're interested in, download a guide and get a series of emails that are set up to be automatically sent out to that person every day for the next few weeks.

The aim is to sell a high-end product or service off the back of the emails.

What about drip marketing resources?

The complete guide to drip marketing


54. Ecommerce marketing 

What is ecommerce marketing?

Ecommerce marketing is all about increasing awareness of an online store’s brand and inventory. Ecommerce marketing can take place online and offline.

Need ecommerce marketing examples?

When one customer ordered bedding from online store Laura Ashley, they received an additional gift 2 days later through the post.

What about ecommerce marketing resources?

50 unbeatable ecommerce marketing tips

55. Email marketing 

What is email marketing?

Email marketing is when you communicate and advertise to customers via email. 

Businesses normally accumulate a mailing list of clients and potential leads over time which they can deliver content and pitch things to. 

Alternatively, they could choose to email specific targets cold. If you're taking this route, then something like hunter.io will help you find just about any email address you want.

Plus, you can even use this free tool to track who opens your emails on gmail.

Emails help establish and maintain relationships so that deals can be made.

Need email marketing examples?

Lots of different websites have a newsletter, lead magnet or some sort of subscription option that readers can use to submit their email address.

What about email marketing resources?

How to write a marketing email

56. Employee marketing 

What is employee marketing?

Businesses shouldn't just focus on external comms. Employees are potential customers and brand ambassadors, which is why many companies have staff discounts and benefits packages. 

Need employee marketing examples?

When we were full-time employees at Sky, we would get all the TV packages for free. It was a nice perk, but one which made sence for all parties.

What about employee marketing resources?

How to turn your employees into brand marketers

57. Entrepreneurial marketing 

What is entrepreneurial marketing?

Entrepreneurial marketing is about sole individuals executing mainstream marketing strategies. Entrepreneurial marketing is more about having a particular mindset than execute any particular strategy.

Starting a business is tough, so entrepreneurs need to try and get as much mileage out of their marketing as possible. The need for entrepreneurial marketing is usually born out of necessity.

Entrepreneurs don’t have the luxury of large marketing teams or huge budgets. Instead, they must try to get the results they need with more innovative methods.

Need entrepreneurial marketing examples?

Some of the most inspirational entrepreneurs haven't always had easy, glamorous starts to their business lives.

Valued at around $82.5billion, Google is one of the most valuable companies around. 

Nevertheless, founders Larry Page and Sergey Brin created and grew Google from a garage.

In the early days, Page and Brin were entrepreneurs who needed to market their idea well. As such, they used entrepreneurial marketing. 

What about entrepreneurial marketing resources?

The essential guide to small business marketing

58. Ethnic marketing 

What is ethnic marketing?

Ethnic marketing stems from understanding that we’re not all the same. In other words, we’re all individuals and marketing messages will work well with some people and communities, but not others [and vice versa].

But if a business can segment their audience, they can create bespoke marketing messages that are more effective. 

It’s also known as cultural marketing [see number 41], diversity marketing [see number 51] or multicultural marketing [see number 91].

Need ethnic marketing examples?

In 2014, Coke ran a patriotic ad during the Super Bowl showcasing America's cultural diversity:

What about ethnic marketing resources?

The real meaning of multicultural marketing

59. Evangelism marketing 

What is evangelism marketing?

If a business can create customers who will voluntarily become brand advocates, it can execute evangelism marketing. Getting a happy customer to talk about a brand is going to be extremely effective in establishing trust with prospective consumers.

Need evangelism marketing examples?

Apple has a seemingly endless supply of brand evangelists. 

Whether we’re talking about iPads, iPhone or IPods, Apple has loads of fans that adore their gadgets and subsequently help market all their products.

What about evangelism marketing resources?

What does a brand evangelist do and do you need one?

60. Event marketing 

What is event marketing?

Event marketing is when a business leverages an event to increase brand awareness and drive sales.

Need event marketing examples?

The annual Thanksgiving Day Parade in New York City is the second-oldest Thanksgiving parade in the USA.

It’s been going since 1924 and US department store Macy’s have always presented it.

What about event marketing resources?

Event marketing strategy

61. Expeditionary marketing 

What is expeditionary marketing?

Expeditionary marketing describes the concept of marketing for growth. It’s a form of risk taking. If a business wants to move into a new market, it should use expeditionary marketing to achieve its goals.

Need expeditionary marketing examples?

BT always used to be known as a specialist telephony company.

Nowadays, it’s involved in the broadband and TV markets too. It used expeditionary marketing when it started bidding for Barclays Premier League and UEFA Champions League TV rights.

What about expeditionary marketing resources?

Scary world of business: what is expeditionary marketing?

62. Experiential marketing 

What is experiential marketing?

Experiential marketing is marketing a brand, product or service through some sort of immersive experience. It’s a powerful and highly effective type of marketing because experiential events directly engage with people. Good experiences are memorable.

Need experimental marketing examples?

Red Bull is famous for pulling off amazing experiential marketing campaigns. They enjoyed huge exposure with the ‘Red Bull Stratus’, a supersonic parachute jump made from space:

It was the world’s highest parachute jump and daredevil Felix Baumgartner passed the speed of sound. Now that's newsworthy.

What about experiential marketing resources?

7 of the coolest experiential marketing campaigns we’ve ever seen