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Have you ever stopped and thought about how many different types of marketing there are? It’s astonishing.

Just enter the term “marketing” into Google and you’ll see loads of different strategies.

There are so many options out there, so we decided to put together an epic list of all the different types of marketing techniques.

We've included a brief description, comment, example and extra resource for each type.

Now… this is a huge, comprehensive list.

We found a whopping 163 types of marketing, so this turned out to be a pretty big article. And look, we're not saying they're all great. In fact, some are a load of old tosh.

You’re gonna find the good, the bad and the ugly. But nonetheless, we reckon they’re all there.

You can grab a coffee, start scrolling and get fully clued up if you want to. But to make it easier for you to look up and analyse different marketing strategies, I've put them in alphabetical order and included quick links to them all below.

Caveat: We’ve included any marketing term that might qualify as a standalone tactic which can be applied by different businesses across different markets. We didn’t include industry-specific strategies such as construction marketing, art marketing or property marketing.

A desk with pens and paper

Table of contents


1. Above the line [ATL] marketing 

What is above the line marketing?

Above the line marketing is using mass media to market to a wide audience.

It’s the opposite of below the line marketing [number 12], which is more specific and targeted marketing. The strength of above the line marketing is potential reach; the downside is often relevancy.

Need above the line marketing examples?

The clearest example of above the line marketing is a Super Bowl TV commercial. A 30-second advert at half-time can cost upwards of $5million. Obviously viewing figures will be enormous, but will that pay off?

Here's all the Super Bowl commercials from 2019:

What about above the line marketing resources?

Examples of above the line marketing

2. Account-based marketing 

What is account-based marketing?

Account-based marketing is an alternative B2B marketing strategy that targets customers who have a particular type of account. It’s a form of segmentation [and in marketing, specificity is always a good thing].

Need account-based marketing examples?

Hotjar is a company that sells website analytics software. They have 3 price points:

Example of account-based marketing

If they wanted to upsell a product to their customers, it makes sense to tailor their messaging according to which version of the software they have.

The way Hotjar will speak to someone on the basic package could [and probably should] be very different to the way it will communicate with someone on the business deal. 

What about account-based marketing resources?

Account-based marketing strategies

3. Acquisition marketing 

What is acquisition marketing?

This is a marketing tactic that's sole purpose is to bring new customers or clients to a business.

The ultimate aim is to create an acquisition marketing strategy that runs on autopilot.

Need acquisition marketing examples?

SEO is an example of acquisition marketing. It's also something that works in the background.

What about acquisition marketing resources?

The ultimate guide to customer acquisition for 2021

4. Affiliate marketing 

What is affiliate marketing?

Affiliate marketing is the act of marketing someone else’s brand, website, product or service in return for a fee. The fee is performance-based. The more successful the affiliate marketing is, the more the affiliate will get paid.

Need affiliate marketing examples?

If you head to ClickBank, you’ll see that there are affiliate marketing opportunities in dozens of niches.

What about affiliate marketing resources?

A guide to the best niches

5. Affinity marketing 

What is affinity marketing?

Also known as partnership marketing [see number 109], affinity marketing is about creating strategic, mutually beneficial partnerships.

Need affinity marketing examples?

Businesses partner together so that they can leverage different audiences and increase their brand awareness. That's why you can find McDonald's restaurants in plenty of Asda stores in the UK.

What about affinity marketing resources?

How does affinity marketing work?

6. Agile marketing 

What is agile marketing?

Agile marketing is about being open, receptive and responsive to change with your marketing strategy. As the name suggest, it’s about being flexible and not sticking to a rigid plan.

You could say, then, that agile marketing is more of an attitude than a strategy. Inspiration for the term comes from the techie world of agile development, where iterations to software would be steady and incremental.

Need agile marketing examples?

Football fans might remember that in 2013, Chelsea’s Eden Hazard made the headlines by kicking out at a time wasting ball boy. Specsavers wasted no time in sending out an amusing spoof ad that referenced the bizarre incident:

Specsavers' spoof ad

7. Alliance marketing 

What is alliance marketing?

As with affinity or partnership marketing, alliance marketing is about two businesses collaborating. The difference with alliance marketing is that the collaboration runs deeper.

Companies that are teaming up [because it can be more than one] pool their resources to promote and sell a product or service.

Need alliance marketing examples?

Alliance marketing is why you see a car wash at a garage, or a Costa at Waterstones. Some partnerships just make perfect business sense.

What about alliance marketing resources?

Why is alliance marketing effective?

8. Ambush marketing 

What is ambush marketing?

A business that uses ambush marketing will attempt to associate its products or services with an event that already has official sponsors. As the name suggests, companies use this low-cost tactic to ambush events and compete for exposure against competitors.

Need ambush marketing examples?

Tennis fans might remember that Heineken was the official beer sponsor of the 2011 US Open.

However, during the competition, rival Stella located the closest train station to Billie Jean King National Tennis Centre and decorated it with loads of adverts.

The adverts all had tennis-related themes and slogans, so it appeared as though Stella were sponsoring the event.

What about ambush marketing resources?

Ambush marketing: when sponsors cry 'foul'

9. Article marketing 

What is article marketing?

Article marketing is a type of advertising in which businesses write articles and then strategically placed on the internet. Articles need to be about relevant topics.

Once written, they’re distributed to news outlets, article banks, forums, PR sites and article submission sites. 

In a sense, article marketing is similar to content marketing, but the articles don’t exist on a company’s own website. As such, the value of article marketing is questionable.

Need article marketing examples?

You can see sponsored content on many websites:

Sponsored articles on a website

What about article marketing resources?

A step-by-step guide to article marketing

10. Augmented marketing 

What is augmented marketing?

Augmented marketing is the idea of adding value to a proposition via an additional, innovative offer.

The word ‘augmented’ means “having been made greater in size or value”. So by laying on extra benefits, augmented marketing increases the chances of a sale.

Need augmented marketing examples?

You’ll find stacks of examples in the pizza industry, where you find lots of 'buy one, get one free' offers.

What about augmented marketing resources?

10 examples of augmented marketing in retail


11. Behavioural marketing 

What is behavioural marketing?

Behavioral marketing is marketing to consumers that’s automated, but nonetheless based on their behavior. It is an online marketing [see number 104] strategy. 

Typically, behaviors that trigger a certain marketing message would be when someone:

  • Clicks on a link.
  • Visits a certain web page.
  • Downloads a PDF.
  • Buys something.
  • Shares or likes a post on social media

Need behavioural marketing examples?

If you buy a bottle of ketchup and scan a QR code, you’ll get a specific marketing message. In this case, by doing that, your behavior tells Heinz something.

If nothing else, it reveals that you’re prepared to engage with their product and brand.

What about behavioural marketing resources?

Why behavioral marketing is so exciting

12. Below the line [BTL] marketing 

What is below the line marketing?

Below the line marketing is targeted marketing that doesn't use mass media [so not things like TV, radio, social media and similar things that are widely consumed].

It’s the opposite of above the line marketing [see number 1]. Below the line marketing is more personal and, as a result, often more successful than above the line marketing.

Need below the line marketing examples?

Network marketers throw intimate product parties.

They often find that being able to physically put a product in someone’s hands and being able to talk to them face-to-face is powerful.

What about below the line marketing resources?

Below the line marketing and its applications

13. Black hat marketing 

What is black hat marketing?

Black hat marketing refers to unethical SEO tactics.

Google analyzes websites against certain criteria before deciding what to rank where. There are ways of cheating the system, but doing so would be gambling with your business. It’s just not worth it.

Any gains are likely to be short-term; if Google catches on, you can expect your website to incur a penalty.

Need black hat marketing examples?

In 2013, Google penalised global florist Interflora for using back hat SEO tactics. 

The penalty was severe. The Interflora website was effectively wiped off the internet for several months until the company resolved all their unethical search issues.

What about black hat marketing resources?

8 risky black hat SEO techniques used today

14. Brand marketing 

What is brand marketing?

Brand marketing is the concept of marketing an identity [and not a product or service].

Most businesses know that they have to work out their brand positioning. They need to understand what they stand for, what their USPs are and what the perception of their company is. 

Sometimes, certainly over the long-term, it pays off to communicate values over items because it’s more conducive to encouraging customer engagement and loyalty.

Need brand marketing examples?

Sky makes a point of consistently marketing it's promised to deliver an exceptional TV service:

Sky advert

What about brand marketing resources?

Brand marketing lessons from Donald Trump and Brexit

15. Brick and mortar marketing 

What is brick and mortar marketing?

Quite simply, brick and mortar marketing is any form of marketing that exists in a retail shop.

Need brick and mortar marketing examples?

Most stores market special promotions on every shelf.

What about brick and mortar marketing resources?

3 how-to strategies for your brick and mortar marketing

16. Business to business [B2B] marketing 

What is business to business marketing?

Quite simply, B2B marketing happens when one business markets a product or service to another.

Need business to business marketing examples?

Lots of businesses market what they sell to other companies. For instance, insurance companies offer cover to shops [for both staff and consumers].

What about business to business marketing resources?

What makes B2B marketing special?

17. Business to consumer [B2C] marketing 

What is business to consumer marketing?

B2C marketing refers to any marketing that’s specifically dedicated to consumers.

Need business to consumer marketing examples?

Obviously, consumers are marketed to everywhere, all day and all night. Clothes outlet Next publish adverts that speak to a certain carefully thought out persona.

What about business to consumer marketing resources?

5 ideas to create profitable B2C marketing campaigns

18. Business to people [B2P] marketing 

What is business to people marketing?

Business to people marketing is a B2B marketing strategy which recognises that, in reality, it's not the businesses [as entities] that are buying what you're trying to sell.

It's actually still people that are doing the purchasing [in the form of decision makers].

This shift in perspective results in bespoke, personal marketing [which is always more effective].

Need business to people marketing examples?

If an insurance company was trying to sell cover to a shop, there's little point in just popping a flyer through the door or ringing any old person on the phone.

They'd be better off doing some research and finding out who would be in charge of making this sort of decision. From there, the insurance company can build up a persona and communicate a more meaningful message.

What about business to people marketing resources?

Time to ditch B2B and think B2P

19. Buzz marketing 

What is buzz marketing?

Buzz marketing is marketing that seeks to induce drama, excitement and anticipation about a product.

When it works, buzz marketing is amazing.

The trouble is, if you get a campaign wrong, everything can fall flat. A poor result can even wreak havoc with your brand image.

Need buzz marketing examples?

Apple is great at buzz marketing. They sell great gadgets, but have nevertheless mastered the art of building excitement without saying much.

Buzz marketing example

What about buzz marketing resources?

The 6 buttons for buzz marketing success


20. Call centre marketing 

What is call centre marketing?

Call centre marketing happens when a business authorizes a specialist company [a call centre or contact centre] to cold call people [and market a product or service].

Need call centre marketing examples?

Let’s suppose an accountancy firm wanted to advertise their services. And let’s also imagine that they wanted to market their brand to small businesses.

If they felt that cold calling was their best play, they face a couple of problems.

Firstly, there’s the logistical issue of making the calls. How long is it going to take to get the phone numbers and make the calls? Who is going to do it?

Secondly, what constitutes a good cold call? Not everyone can do it; there’s obviously a knack to marketing to strangers over the phone. One solution is to use a call centre to cold call people for you.

This is call centre marketing.

What about call centre marketing resources?

3 ways to connect marketing with your contact centre

21. Call to action [CTA] marketing 

What is call to action marketing?

This is the name given to any online marketing collateral that prompts someone to take a specific action. So, we're talking about any banners, buttons, copy or graphics that ask users to do something [like download a PDF, subscribe to a newsletter or click a link].

Typically, this action would lead to the user entering some sort of sales funnel.

Need call to action marketing examples?

You can see call-to-action marketing on the majority of websites.

What about call to action marketing resources?

3 call-to-action examples you can’t help but click

22. Catalogue marketing 

What is catalogue marketing?

Catalogue marketing is the act of using a catalogue to showcase products or services. It’s a type of direct marketing [see number 48] that’s most popular with mail order retailers.

Catalogue marketing might seem like a slightly old fashioned form of marketing, but, perhaps surprisingly, research indicates the people still like being able to thumb through a catalogue.

There’s something about physical marketing that works.

Need catalogue marketing examples?

Step forward Argos… 

What about catalogue marketing resources?

Why catalogues are an essential sales and marketing tool

23. Cause marketing 

What is cause marketing?

Cause marketing is attaching some sort of charitable or inspirational angle to a product, service or brand. Crucially, cause marketing only works when you find a cause that both the business and its customers care about.

Need cause marketing examples?

Reebok teamed up with Avon 39. The Avon 39 Walk to End Breast Cancer is a 39-mile walk to raise awareness and funding for breast cancer.

Reebok is a national sponsor. Avon 39 gets significant visibility and cash, whilst being associated with such a worthy cause enhances Reebok’s brand.

What about cause marketing resources?

Cause marketing: the complete guide for data-driven marketers

24. Celebrity marketing 

What is celebrity marketing?

Celebrity marketing means getting a celebrity to endorse a product or service.

The logic is that celebrity endorsements increase sales because consumers can connect and identify with someone. In other words, to them, it feels like they’re buying from the celebrity and not a faceless business.

Interestingly, although this tactic is known as celebrity marketing, a product doesn’t need an endorsement from a famous superstar. The ‘celebrity’ just needs to be a person who is well known to the target audience.

Need celebrity marketing examples?

Sky Sports used David Beckham in their ads for a long time:

David Beckham and Sky Sports

25. Channel marketing 

What is channel marketing?

Channel marketing is any marketing strategy that helps a product or service reach the consumer in a quicker, more efficient way.

In business, a ‘channel’ is all the activities and people involved in taking something from production to consumption. That’s stuff like manufacturers, wholesalers, distributors, retailers, marketing collateral and suchlike.

Need channel marketing examples?

Advertising at a trade show is a form of channel marketing, since the result of partnering with a retailer would result in an item reaching customers quicker.

What about channel marketing resources?

7 steps for channel marketing success

26. Close range marketing [CRM]

What is close range marketing?

Brands who like close range marketing use WiFi or Bluetooth to send promotional messages to customers’ smartphones or tablets. This is usually an in-store experience, because the customer’s device must be within range of the shop’s transmitter or beacon.

Also known as proximity marketing [number 123], close range marketing is a very modern strategy.

Need close range marketing examples?

If you find yourself wandering near a KFC and receiving an advert for a burrito, you now know the type of marketing you’ve seen.

What about close range marketing resources?

8 reasons why close range marketing matters

27. Closed loop marketing 

What is closed loop marketing?

Closed loop marketing is the act of using information and performance data to produce more effective marketing strategies.

By analysing what’s working with a campaign and what isn’t, a business can eliminate a degree of guesswork from their next project. As the phrase goes, this reduces uncertainty and ‘closes the loop’.

Need closed loop marketing examples?

Suppose a business had 10 blog posts lined up in their editorial calendar, all on different subjects.

They could post them and go into their Google Analytics account to see how they each performed. This data is valuable because it can reveal which issues a company’s audience is more interested in.

In turn, that can fine tune sales strategies going forward.

What about closed loop marketing resources?

How closed loop marketing works

28. Cloud marketing 

What is cloud marketing?

Cloud marketing is simply using all the modern tools on the internet to continually connect with and market to customers.

Today, businesses are able to surface the same marketing message in multiple places. So you might see one ad advert in an email, on a website, on Twitter, on YouTube, or in your Facebook feed.

Need cloud marketing examples?

Dunkin’ Donuts often serve up tempting messages in a variety of mediums.

What about cloud marketing resources?

What is cloud marketing?

29. Communal marketing 

What is communal marketing?

Communal marketing happens when a business uses customers' stories about a product or service for promotional purposes. It’s marketing that aims to create a deeper bond between a business and its customers. It’s very effective because the people are real.

When they talk about their experiences, it helps non-customers identify with the product easier. They can see themselves feeling and experiencing the same things.

Need communal marketing examples?

Content tool Buzzsumo has some great testimonials on their website and they do a great job of selling their product.

Communal marketing example

What about communal marketing resources?

3 examples of communal and sensory marketing

30. Community marketing 

What is community marketing?

Community marketing is any marketing that concentrates on an existing customer [as opposed to new customers].

Sometimes known as loyalty marketing [see number 88], community marketing is useful because the cost of maintaining a customer will always be cheaper than the cost of acquiring a new one.

Need community marketing examples?

O2 does a good job or rewarding customer loyalty. It frequently hands over multiple perks to all their customers, both new and old.

What about community marketing resources?

Community marketing guides, white papers and webinars

31. Computational marketing 

What is computational marketing?

Computational marketing uses computer technology to make marketing more efficient. Businesses that hold information about customers can use computers to match up the right people with the right marketing campaign.

In theory, it sounds great. Trouble is, companies often find themselves holding inconsistent levels of profile data.

They can access lots of information about some people, but hold nothing but a name for others.

That reduces the success of the algorithm substantially.

Need computational marketing examples?

Say someone manages a supermarket and they want to promote a range of shower gels. If they have a database with details of 10,000 customers, they could use computer software to analyse their buying habits.

If it shows them 1,000 people who have bought shower gels in the past 6 months, they could market only to them [and expect more higher success].

That’s computational marketing.

What about computational marketing resources?

Introduction to computational advertising

32. Concentrated marketing 

What is concentrated marketing?

Concentrated marketing happens when a company has developed a product specifically for a very well defined market.

Need concentrated marketing examples?

Being one of the first car manufacturers to enter the hybrid market, Toyota used concentrated marketing strategies back in 2000. The Prius was advertised to people who cared about green issues because it was a highly relevant angle.

What about concentrated marketing resources?

Concentrated marketing - what is it?

33. Consumer marketing 

What is consumer marketing?

Consumer marketing is straightforward: it’s marketing directly to consumers. Quite simply, it’s the most common type of marketing.

Need consumer marketing examples?

Take a look around. Consumer marketing is everywhere. It's online and offline. It’s in shops, in the street… even in public toilets.

What consumer buzz marketing resources?

The future of consumer marketing is personal

34. Content marketing 

What is content marketing?

Content marketing means creating and distributing content with the aim of driving positive action.

It’s a long-term strategy. Rather than focus on selling, content marketing must deliver value to the target audience first. This enhances the brand perception and nourishes the relationship between the business and the consumer. 

Need content marketing examples?

The company Whole Foods Market made a clever move by creating an article on how to save money on a weekly shop. It doesn't advertise any of their products, but it was a useful and popular piece of content:

Content marketing in action

What about content marketing resources?

Content marketing - free beginner's guide

35. Contextual marketing 

What is contextual marketing?

Contextual marketing is the strategy of personalising the online marketing content that a user sees, based on who they are and what they’re doing.

Need contextual marketing examples?

Two such contextual marketing techniques are SEO and retargeting.

The whole premise of search engine optimisation is based on context. If a user fires up Google and enters a term, they should see relevant search results [and adverts].

Meanwhile, business that retarget people can follow users around the internet [and surface ads to them] without any direct contact. For instance, suppose I’m looking to buy a new sofa and I go to a website that sells sofas.

If that company has retargeting set up, when I leave their site and go somewhere else, they can continue to show me sofa ads. Contextual marketing allows brands to sell the right product to the right person at the right time. 

What about contextual marketing resources?

4 examples of contextual marketing and what it means for you

36. Conversational marketing 

What is conversational marketing?

Conversational marketing revolves around talking to people. Smart brands know that selling is easier when a business has a good relationship with their target audience.

Ultimately, when we feel that we can talk directly with a brand, that’s a good thing. Conversational marketing lends itself well to the modern business because of the two-way nature of the internet.

Need conversational marketing examples?

Feel-good conversations can be very simple:

Levis talking on Twitter

What about conversational marketing resources?

Why should we care about conversational marketing?

37. Conversion rate marketing 

What is conversion rate marketing?

Conversion rate marketing is any form of marketing that’s judged by how much money it makes [it’s conversion rate]. The advantage of conversion rate marketing is that it’s very honest.

Need conversional rate marketing examples?

The success of any PPC strategy depends on the conversion rate of the campaign in question. Let's take a random PPC campaign. Suppose it costs us $1 every time someone clicks on our link and that the price of our product is $100.

If our conversion rate is 5%, then for every $500 we spend, we know that we're going to make $2,500 [a profit of $2,000]. But if the conversion rate is 1%, we make $500 and only break even.

Conversion rate marketing revolves around numbers and making sure that every campaign is as good as it can be so that you’re generating the possible best ROI.

What about conversion rate marketing resources?

The importance of conversion

38. Cooperative marketing 

What is cooperative marketing?

Cooperative marketing happens when 2 or more companies team up to sell a product or service. That collaboration could happen in a number of ways.

Of course, multiple businesses may come up with an agreement to sell a product.

But also, cooperative marketing could be as simple as pooling resources [such as time, money, knowledge or expertise].

Need cooperative marketing examples?

Shopper marketing [see number 140] can sometimes be considered to be a type of cooperative marketing.

Manufacturers know more about the products they make than the retailers who sell the item. So if they team up, a retailer may be able to market products more effectively.

What about cooperative marketing resources?

What is the importance of cooperative marketing?

39. Corporate marketing 

What is corporate marketing?

Corporate marketing is about marketing [and managing] brand perception. Corporate marketing is more about a high level interpretation of a brand than it is about how an individual product or service is marketed.

Need corporate marketing examples?

Nike's tagline 'Just do it' is an extremely impressionable and inspirational phrase that represents what Nike is about without explicitly describing it.

What about corporate marketing resources?

What is a corporate marketing strategy?

40. Cross media marketing 

What is cross media marketing?

Quite simply, cross media marketing refers to putting a marketing message in front of a customer in a variety of forms. Usually, that means print, email, mobile and online.

The challenge for marketers is that we’re all inundated with advertising every day.

People tune out to the majority of ads. 

Cross media marketing aims is to continually catch customers and put a company’s name or product in front of them [without being annoying or invasive.]

Need cross media marketing examples?

Suppose you want to order a pizza.

You see a flyer with a QR code. If you scan the QR code, you’re probably going to be taken to a particular landing page. If you register, expect an offer of some sort.

After that, you’ll most likely be invited to join some sort of community [maybe a Facebook group], where you’ll receive more discounts.

What about cross media marketing resources?

What is cross media marketing and how does it fit in with paper?

41. Cultural marketing 

What is cultural marketing?

Cultural marketing is marketing that’s specifically geared towards a particular culture or demographic.

This is the most effective type of marketing segmentation. Cultural marketing is also known as diversity marketing [see number 51],  ethnic marketing [see number 58] or multicultural marketing [see number 91].

Need cultural marketing examples?

As a make-up business, L’Oreal’s range of products lends itself very well to cultural marketing.

What about cultural marketing resources?

Cultural influences on marketing strategies


42. Data marketing 

What is data marketing?

Data marketing is using large sets of data to improve the accuracy and effectiveness of marketing campaigns. 

It’s similar to database marketing [see number 43], but data marketing puts a greater emphasis on behavioural patterns and trends.

Need data marketing examples?

Macy’s has real-time pricing on its website. It uses big data to adjust the prices of almost 73 million products. The adjustments are made according to user behavior.

What about data marketing resources?

10 ways big data is revolutionizing marketing and sales

43. Database marketing 

What is database marketing?

Database marketing is the process of collecting and analysing customer information to implement marketing strategies that make money. A business can use a database of customers [or potential customers] to segment their audience and create personalised marketing messages.

It’s a form of direct marketing [see number 48] that can be executed with any method.

Need database marketing examples?

Suppose that you have a Sky TV subscription. More specifically, a Sky Sports subscription. If Sky was to communicate with you, there’s no point in them trying to get you to watch Sky One shows.

The information that they hold about you in whatever database they use should show them that I like sport. 

That means they can show me more relevant ads, such as  for sports programmes or an upsell for a sports box office event [such as a boxing match].

What about database marketing resources?

Marketing with your database

44. De-marketing 

What is de-marketing?

As strange as it might sound, businesses sometimes market certain offers and promotions to reduce demand or limit growth. Normally, this happens in a retail environment.

[And there is a tactical reason why this happens; it’s not complete madness.] A supermarket might heavily advertise an offer that’s only available on Saturdays, so as to avoid overcrowding on Sundays.

Need de-marketing examples?

Clothing company Patagonia made a short film called ‘Worn Wear’ that encouraged customers to fix their clothes rather than buy new ones.

On the surface, this would appear counter productive. However, the beauty of this video is that it had the opposite effect.

Aside from showing integrity, the film differentiated and strengthened the Patagonia brand by highlighting how durable and long-lasting Patagonia clothes can be.

What about de-marketing resources?

6 reasons for turning away customers

45. Defensive marketing 

What is defensive marketing?

Defensive marketing is any form of marketing that is designed to protect a company's position in a market.

Maybe a start-up needs to grow. Or an innovative business has developed an amazing product with a brilliant USP.

Perhaps a company has seen a new rival emerge.

Need defensive marketing examples?

For a long time, Sky TV had a monopoly on English football, but when it was forced to hand over a selection of games to a rival broadcaster, it became necessary to tailor some of their marketing accordingly.

Instead of just talking about football, they had to start talking about rugby, tennis and so on. This is defensive marketing at its best. Campaigns began to focus on the breadth of Sky’s sports coverage. 

What about defensive marketing resources?

Defending your market share

46. Differential marketing 

What is differential marketing?

Differential marketing is any marketing strategy that is tweaked to target more than one audience.

The variable could be price, customer experience or even the product itself.

Need differential marketing examples?

A sports company might bring out a running shoe with a cushioned heel to lessen impact for long-distance runners. It might also bring out a lighter version with less cushioning for those who are more focused on speed.

What about differential marketing resources?

What’s the difference between differentiated and undifferentiated marketing strategies?

47. Digital marketing 

What is digital marketing?

Digital marketing is marketing that uses digital technology, such as websites, TVs, smartphones, tablets, billboards and display advertising.

Need digital marketing examples?

Take a look around the next time you take a train, walk through a busy city or drive down the motorway - there are billboards and digital signage examples everywhere.

What about digital marketing resources?

24 resources and tools to inspire digital marketing beginners

48. Direct marketing 

What is direct marketing?

Direct marketing is using a range of mediums to sell products or services directly to consumers [as opposed to selling via a retailer].

Need direct marketing examples?

Direct marketing takes place when you’re able to communicate one-to-one with a customer. Typically, that might mean using one of the following techniques:

  • Cold-calling
  • Mail order catalogues
  • Text messages
  • TV and radio ads
  • Fliers
  • Newspaper and magazine adverts

This Guinness TV commercial is direct marketing in action:

What about direct marketing resources?

The Direct Marketing Association [DMA]

49. Direct mail marketing 

What is direct mail marketing?

Direct mail marketing is communicating with audiences via flyers and letters through the post. Companies will usually send marketing collateral to a particular demographic.

Need direct mail marketing examples?

We're sure you don't need an example of annoying direct mail. We're all pretty sick of the rubbish that constantly gets pushed through our letterbox.

What about direct mail marketing resources?

Direct mail marketing tips, articles and resources

50. Disruptive marketing 

What is disruptive marketing?

Disruptive marketing is all about finding a new and better angle for a product, either from adapting a marketing strategy, altering a product or creating something innovative that completely changes a while industry.

Need disruptive marketing examples?

Apple is the perfect example of a company spotting a problem within an industry, adapting and disrupting the status quo.

With iTunes, Apple created an infrastructure when consumers could buy music from them, not from shops. It singlehandedly killed CDs [as well as provided the final nail in the coffin for cassettes and vinyl records].

What about disruptive marketing resources?

25 brands that hit the mark with disruptive marketing

51. Diversity marketing 

What is diversity marketing?

Diversity marketing is more commonly known as cultural marketing [see number 41], ethnic marketing [see number 58] or multicultural marketing [see number 91].

It refers to acknowledging that consumers have diverse backgrounds and that by tailoring messaging, businesses can potentially make more sales.

Need diversity marketing examples?

Because they deal with a lot of different skin types, L'Oreal market their makeup products effectively to people of various backgrounds. 

Diversity marketing example

What about diversity marketing resources?

Diversity marketing needs to be more than skin deep

52. Door-to-door marketing 

What is door-to-door marketing?

Door-to-door marketing is the technique of going from one house to another, pitching a product or service.

Need door-to-door marketing examples?

Double-glazing is one of the commodities most commonly associated with door-to-door marketing.

What about door-to-door marketing resources?

Door-to-door selling as the first step to billions

53. Drip marketing 

What is drip marketing?

Drip marketing is sending out a scheduled set of promotional emails to a mailing list [advertising a product or service]. It’s basically automated email marketing [see number 55].

Need drip marketing examples?

A drip marketing campaign is associated with a lead magnet.

You see something you're interested in, download a guide and get a series of emails that are set up to be automatically sent out to that person every day for the next few weeks.

The aim is to sell a high-end product or service off the back of the emails.

What about drip marketing resources?

The complete guide to drip marketing


54. Ecommerce marketing 

What is ecommerce marketing?

Ecommerce marketing is all about increasing awareness of an online store’s brand and inventory. Ecommerce marketing can take place online and offline.

Need ecommerce marketing examples?

When one customer ordered bedding from online store Laura Ashley, they received an additional gift 2 days later through the post.

What about ecommerce marketing resources?

50 unbeatable ecommerce marketing tips

55. Email marketing 

What is email marketing?

Email marketing is when you communicate and advertise to customers via email. 

Businesses normally accumulate a mailing list of clients and potential leads over time which they can deliver content and pitch things to. 

Alternatively, they could choose to email specific targets cold. If you're taking this route, then something like hunter.io will help you find just about any email address you want.

Plus, you can even use this free tool to track who opens your emails on gmail.

Emails help establish and maintain relationships so that deals can be made.

Need email marketing examples?

Lots of different websites have a newsletter, lead magnet or some sort of subscription option that readers can use to submit their email address.

What about email marketing resources?

How to write a marketing email

56. Employee marketing 

What is employee marketing?

Businesses shouldn't just focus on external comms. Employees are potential customers and brand ambassadors, which is why many companies have staff discounts and benefits packages. 

Need employee marketing examples?

When we were full-time employees at Sky, we would get all the TV packages for free. It was a nice perk, but one which made sence for all parties.

What about employee marketing resources?

How to turn your employees into brand marketers

57. Entrepreneurial marketing 

What is entrepreneurial marketing?

Entrepreneurial marketing is about sole individuals executing mainstream marketing strategies. Entrepreneurial marketing is more about having a particular mindset than execute any particular strategy.

Starting a business is tough, so entrepreneurs need to try and get as much mileage out of their marketing as possible. The need for entrepreneurial marketing is usually born out of necessity.

Entrepreneurs don’t have the luxury of large marketing teams or huge budgets. Instead, they must try to get the results they need with more innovative methods.

Need entrepreneurial marketing examples?

Some of the most inspirational entrepreneurs haven't always had easy, glamorous starts to their business lives.

Valued at around $82.5billion, Google is one of the most valuable companies around. 

Nevertheless, founders Larry Page and Sergey Brin created and grew Google from a garage.

In the early days, Page and Brin were entrepreneurs who needed to market their idea well. As such, they used entrepreneurial marketing. 

What about entrepreneurial marketing resources?

Entrepreneurial marketing defined

58. Ethnic marketing 

What is ethnic marketing?

Ethnic marketing stems from understanding that we’re not all the same. In other words, we’re all individuals and marketing messages will work well with some people and communities, but not others [and vice versa].

But if a business can segment their audience, they can create bespoke marketing messages that are more effective. 

It’s also known as cultural marketing [see number 41], diversity marketing [see number 51] or multicultural marketing [see number 91].

Need ethnic marketing examples?

In 2014, Coke ran a patriotic ad during the Super Bowl showcasing America's cultural diversity:

What about ethnic marketing resources?

The real meaning of multicultural marketing

59. Evangelism marketing 

What is evangelism marketing?

If a business can create customers who will voluntarily become brand advocates, it can execute evangelism marketing. Getting a happy customer to talk about a brand is going to be extremely effective in establishing trust with prospective consumers.

Need evangelism marketing examples?

Apple has a seemingly endless supply of brand evangelists. 

Whether we’re talking about iPads, iPhone or IPods, Apple has loads of fans that adore their gadgets and subsequently help market all their products.

What about evangelism marketing resources?

What does a brand evangelist do and do you need one?

60. Event marketing 

What is event marketing?

Event marketing is when a business leverages an event to increase brand awareness and drive sales.

Need event marketing examples?

The annual Thanksgiving Day Parade in New York City is the second-oldest Thanksgiving parade in the USA.

It’s been going since 1924 and US department store Macy’s have always presented it.

What about event marketing resources?

Event marketing strategy

61. Expeditionary marketing 

What is expeditionary marketing?

Expeditionary marketing describes the concept of marketing for growth. It’s a form of risk taking. If a business wants to move into a new market, it should use expeditionary marketing to achieve its goals.

Need expeditionary marketing examples?

BT always used to be known as a specialist telephony company.

Nowadays, it’s involved in the broadband and TV markets too. It used expeditionary marketing when it started bidding for Barclays Premier League and UEFA Champions League TV rights.

What about expeditionary marketing resources?

Scary world of business: what is expeditionary marketing?

62. Experiential marketing 

What is experiential marketing?

Experiential marketing is marketing a brand, product or service through some sort of immersive experience. It’s a powerful and highly effective type of marketing because experiential events directly engage with people. Good experiences are memorable.

Need experimental marketing examples?

Red Bull is famous for pulling off amazing experiential marketing campaigns. They enjoyed huge exposure with the ‘Red Bull Stratus’, a supersonic parachute jump made from space:

It was the world’s highest parachute jump and daredevil Felix Baumgartner passed the speed of sound. Now that's newsworthy.

What about experiential marketing resources?

7 of the coolest experiential marketing campaigns we’ve ever seen


63. Facebook marketing 

What is Facebook marketing?

Facebook marketing is any form of marketing that takes place on the social media platform Facebook. This form of marketing can be extremely lucrative because Facebook has around 1.79 billion active users.

Need Facebook marketing examples?

Facebook marketing happens all day, every day.

What about Facebook marketing resources?

45 Facebook advertising tips and marketing tricks

64. Field marketing 

What is field marketing?

Field marketing is marketing face-to-face with prospective customers at a particular place. It’s a direct marketing [number 48] discipline.

It could mean distributing flyers to the general public at a shopping mall. But it might also be liaising with regular business clients at their head office.

Field marketing professionals will often find themselves specializing in a certain area [or ‘field’].

Need field marketing examples?

If you hand out flyers in the street, you’re field marketing.

What about field marketing resources?

What is field marketing?

65. Flanking marketing 

What is flanking marketing?

Flanking marketing is marketing that aims to capture market segments that aren’t being well served by the existing competition.

The idea is that a business will spot an area of a marketing that seems to be of little importance to a rival. It’ll then market itself to try and displace the competition.

Flanking strategies are particularly useful if your business is struggling to compete against bigger companies.

Need flanking marketing examples?

Stewarts Garden Centre doesn’t just sell plants; they also have a café where you can grab a cup of Coffee or have a full-on lunch.

By creating the café, Stewarts is executing a form of flanking marketing. They feel that there is a need for food and drink in that environment that is being underserved.

What about flanking marketing resources?

What is flanking marketing?

66. Free sample marketing 

What is free sample marketing?

Free sample marketing revolves around giving away part of a service product at zero cost, with the aim of selling more of it at a later date. Typically, free sample marketing is executed with food items.

Need free sample marketing examples?

Free sample marketing often takes place in supermarkets, because it's the perfect place to hand out grub - there's a steady influx of customers in a food shopping environment. 

Samples are usually handed out near the shop entrance so that customers have time to react after tasting something they like.

What about free sample marketing resources?

Why free samples should be part of your marketing strategy

67. Freebie marketing 

What is freebie marketing?

Freebie marketing is similar to free sample marketing [see number 66] but it's less about food and more tactical.

We could be talking about ebooks, strategy sessions over the phone, low-priced products, trial memberships and all sorts of similar stuff, so long as the agenda is to eventually sell something else.

Need freebie marketing examples?

Netflix offer new members one free month to test everything out.

What about freebie marketing resources?

How to use freebie marketing to attract more website visitors


68. Geographic marketing 

What is geographic marketing?

Geographic marketing [or geo-marketing] involves incorporating geographical intelligence within a marketing campaign. If a business knows through collecting data that the majority of the customers live in a particular city, it can market directly to them.

Because it’s based on facts and statistics, geo-marketing helps lower the risk of campaigns failing.

Need geographic marketing examples?

If I ran a business that sold jet skis, geographical data will play a big part in the success of any digital campaign. There's no point in advertising a range of jet skis to people with no access to a beach or a stretch of water.

What about geographic marketing resources?

Geo-marketing and why it matters

69. Global marketing 

What is global marketing?

Global marketing is simply marketing something internationally.

And now, thanks to the wide reach of the internet, global marketing is no longer reserved for big corporations. It’s something you can do from the comfort of your home. 

Need global marketing examples?

Cars are advertised all over the world.

What about global marketing resources?

13 businesses with brilliant global marketing strategies

70. Goods marketing 

What is goods marketing?

Businesses use goods marketing to increase the sales of a physical product [not a service]. Marketing can generally be divided into 2 areas:

Goods marketing and services marketing [see number 138]. Companies either sell products or services. As such, their marketing strategies change accordingly.

Need goods marketing examples?

Goods are marketed to us everywhere we go. Some of the best examples are in supermarkets, where products are pushed and promoted constantly.

What about goods marketing resources?

6 must dos for luxury goods marketing

71. Green marketing 

What is green marketing?

Green marketing is using an environmentally friendly angle to promote a brand or product.

Today, if a product is deemed to be ‘green’, it gives the product owner a significant selling advantage. But green marketing doesn’t just concern highlighting which products are eco friendly and which aren’t.

Green marketing is also about brand positioning. By being an environmentally friendly business, a company is display certain values that may influence consumers.

Need green marketing examples?

Sky was one of the first companies in the UK to be completely carbon-free and it used this fact for positive effect for many years.

What about green marketing resources?

What is green marketing?

72. Guerrilla marketing 

What is guerrilla marketing?

Guerrilla marketing is marketing a brand, product or service in a creative and unconventional manner. A successful guerrilla marketing campaign will be interesting, surprising and memorable.

Need guerrilla marketing examples?

In 2013, the film Carrie was re-released. For those who aren’t aware of the film, it’s based on a book by Stephen King and is about a girl with scary telekinetic powers.

In a frightening, but effective piece of marketing to promote the film, this guerrilla marketing stunt caused one heck of a stir in a coffee shop:

What about guerrilla marketing resources?

Guerrilla marketing case studies and examples


73. Horizontal marketing 

What is horizontal marketing?

Horizontal marketing happens when a business teams up with another company that operates in a related niche to market a product or service. By collaborating and pooling resources, the idea is to appeal to a wide audience and maximize earning potential.

Need horizontal marketing examples?

We offer copywriting services and many web designers have trouble getting their clients to create content for their new sites. We could team up with a designer and market a more complete product: a new website that comes complete with copy. 

Website design is a related niche, so that would be horizontal marketing:

What about horizontal marketing resources?

Horizontal marketing explained with examples

74. Humanistic marketing 

What is humanistic marketing?

Humanistic marketing is marketing that appeals to the typical human needs for certain values and feelings. In other words, marketing that targets our desire for love, altruism, knowledge, compassion, honesty, integrity, empathy, respect, trust and justice. 

Need humanistic marketing examples?

Marmite has a consistent brand message that we’ll either love their product or hate it. This is a company that demands we take up a position.

What about humanistic marketing resources?

The humanistic approach to web marketing today


75. Inbound marketing 

What is inbound marketing?

Inbound marketing is a strategy that focuses on getting customers to find and connect with you, not the other way round.

It's the opposite of outbound marketing [see number 106].

The main inbound marketing strategy is search engine optimisation [SEO]. If you rank highly in a search result for a commercially valuable keyword, you'll attract relevant traffic [and potential leads] to your website on autopilot even while you sleep. 

And these people have found you all by themselves.

Need inbound marketing examples?

This very article that you're reading is an example of inbound marketing. It ranks in first place for our target keyword "types of marketing", which is something that gets looked up 16,000 times a month globally.

[We know you're now gonna want to fire up Google and test us. Go ahead - we won't be offended.]

In a nutshell, this article attracts loads of traffic to our website, day in and day out. 

Many of whom we hope will enquire about the services we offer and whom will eventually turn into customers.

What about inbound marketing resources?

Take in as much as possible from inbound.org

76. Industrial marketing 

What is industrial marketing?

Industrial marketing happens when one business tries to sell industrial products or services to another. And for clarity, an industrial product or service is anything that helps produce an end product from raw materials.

It’s a form of B2B marketing [see number 16], but because of the nature of what’s being sold, an industrial marketing campaign requires a high level of product knowledge.

Need industrial marketing examples?

Look at any old school advert from the 50s and 60s. These products have a heavy focus on industrial elements.

What about industrial marketing resources?

Industrial marketing is not consumer marketing

77. Influencer marketing 

What is influencer marketing?

Influencer marketing is the concept of marketing something to a specific person, someone who has a degree of influence over a certain audience.

An influencer could be a celebrity, a person with a strong track record in sales, a well-known author or someone with a large social media following.

Regardless, by establishing a relationship with an influencer, it’s possible to leverage their position and grow your brand quickly.

Need influencer marketing examples?

It happens a lot with gamers on YouTube. If a company is bringing out a new game or console, they might send a copy to a well-known YouTuber so that they can test it and expose it his or her subscribers.

What about influencer marketing resources?

10 reasons why influencer marketing is the next big thing

78. Informational marketing 

What is informational marketing?

Informational marketing explains exactly what a product or service is. From what the benefits are and why it should be chosen over something else through to where you can buy it, informational marketing leaves no stone unturned.

Informational marketing means understanding that a target audience may have to be educated about a product or service if they are to buy it.

Need informational marketing examples?

The telephony industry needs to use a lot of informational marketing, since smartphones are always evolving. From the processor to the battery, it's a technical world.

What about informational marketing resources?

6 reasons why you should build an information marketing business

79. In-game marketing 

What is in-game marketing?

In-game marketing is the tactic of advertising something inside a game. Games consoles and apps are all the rage these days, so businesses can get pretty creative with where they place  ads and videos.

Need in-game marketing examples?

If you have a smartphone or tablet, pretty much any free app will have some sort of in-game marketing going on.

What about in-game marketing resources?

How to win with in-game advertising

80. In-store marketing 

What is in-store marketing?

In-store marketing is any kind of marketing that takes place in a retail shop. It’s also another name for shopper marketing [see number 137].

Need in-store marketing examples?

Step inside pretty much any shop and you'll see in-store marketing. From discounts to bargain bins, there are examples everywhere you look. 

What about in-store marketing resources?

What do effective in-store marketing campaigns look like?

81. Integrated marketing 

What is integrated marketing?

Integrated marketing is the strategy of trying to create a seamless experience for a consumer, no matter how they’re interacting with a brand.

In other words, no business should have a website that looks a certain way and a marketing campaign that feels like it belongs somewhere else.

To that end, integrated marketing is more of a philosophy than a tactic.

Need integrated marketing examples?

Google is a company that offers a very integrated experience.

When you think about it, Google has several different features. There’s gmail, Google docs, Google Analytics and suchlike, but when you try to log in to Google, their message is clear:

Google's log-in screen

What about integrated marketing resources?

5 real examples of integrated marketing

82. Interactive marketing 

What is interactive marketing?

Interactive marketing is any form of marketing that can be triggered when someone performs a particular action.

Need interactive marketing examples?

Search engine optimisation is a form of interactive marketing in action. SEO is all done in real-time. Someone enters a keyword and gets a string of results.

If they enter the term ‘copywriters’, they see the Splash Copywriters website and our meta description:

The Splash Copywriters meta description

When someone uses a search engine to look for a copywriter, that triggers a reaction in the form of websites showing in the search results.

Our SEO work means that the Splash Copywriters website ranks highly for many lucrative keywords.

What about interactive marketing resources?

Interactive marketing definitions, stats and examples

83. International marketing 

What is international marketing?

International marketing is, as you’d imagine, marketing a product or service in multiple countries. Some products or services are only designed to be sold locally, but others can be marketed anywhere.

It’s another name for global marketing [number 69].

Need international marketing examples?

Red Bull do such an amazing job with their international marketing, that it’s easy to forget that they’re an Austrian company.

What about international marketing resources?

10 ways to improve your international marketing strategy

84. Internet marketing 

What is internet marketing?

Commonplace in today's world, internet marketing is any kind of marketing that takes place online. It’s the opposite of offline marketing [number 100]. It’s quite a broad term, since it covers a wide range of marketing practices, such as content marketing, SEO, PPC and email marketing. 

For clarity, internet marketing is the same thing as online marketing [see number 104].

Need internet marketing examples?

Check out the John Lewis website.

The home page doesn't mess around. It knows full well what it wants to sell… and how.

What about internet marketing resources?

A step-by-step guide to internet marketing


85. Left-brain marketing 

What is left-brain marketing?

Left-brain marketing is marketing that appeals to a practical audience. Science tells us that right-brained people are creative, whilst left-brainers are more methodical.

Left-brain marketing values organisation over creativity.

Need left-brain marketing examples?

Over the years, Ronseal’s no-nonsense adverts have always appealed to the straight-talking consumer. Their ‘does what it says on the tin’ tagline is the stuff of marketing legend.

What about left-brain marketing resources?

A beautiful science

86. Local marketing 

What is local marketing?

Quite simply, local marketing is the strategy of marketing something to a nearby audience.

It’s an approach that’s most commonly used by a bricks and mortar shop or restaurant.

Need local marketing examples?

When a local restaurant posts a leaflet through your letter box, that’s local marketing.

What about local marketing resources?

10 ways to simplify your local marketing resources

87. Long tail marketing 

What is long tail marketing?

Long tail marketing refers to the strategy of targeting a large number of niche markets with a product or service. 

It’s mainly used by businesses that are dominated by a huge market leader.

Facing a battle to grow, a company can shift their focus to multiple niche markets that have less demand.

That might sound counterintuitive, since those low demand markets won’t be as lucrative individually, but they might be when their total reach is combined.

Need long tail marketing examples?

Most of us have shopped on Amazon, I’m sure. And you will have been recommended products. 

That’s long tail marketing and an example of Amazon attacking multiple niches.

What about long tail marketing resources?

6 ways to leverage the long tail in your marketing

88. Loyalty marketing 

What is loyalty marketing?

Loyalty marketing is marketing that concentrates on retaining customers through offering various incentives. The logic of loyalty marketing hinges on the belief that the cost of acquiring new customers is far more that the price of keeping an existing one.

Need loyalty marketing examples?

Just check out all the loyalty cards out there. By giving out their clubcards, Tesco can tempt customers back in by offering relevant discounts.

What about loyalty marketing resources?

8 reasons why loyalty programmes are imperative for marketers


89. Mass marketing 

What is mass marketing?

Mass marketing is marketing with the intention of selling something to as many people as possible. There’s no requirement for building relationships or bespoke messaging; the focus is on volume sales.

Some companies are able to execute marketing strategies that are relevant to a wide audience. In reality, for most businesses, mass marketing will only serve to generate lots of low quality leads.

Another name for mass marketing is shotgun marketing [see number 141].

Need mass marketing examples?

Walmart is probably the most successful mass-market retailer in the world. Yet their marketing often feels more personal than it really is.

What about mass marketing resources?

Mass marketing explained with examples

90. Mobile marketing 

What is mobile marketing?

Mobile marketing is any marketing that’s specifically designed for mobile consumption. Mobile advertising is incredibly important in today’s world, since we carry and use our smartphones constantly.

Potential customers have never been so accessible.

According to research, 70% of the entire population of the world owns a smartphone and 70% of those people choose to access the internet on their mobile rather than by using a laptop or desktop computer.

Need mobile marketing examples?

Just fire up your own device and you'll see plenty of examples soon enough.

What about mobile marketing resources?

What is mobile marketing and why does it matter?

91. Multicultural marketing 

What is multicultural marketing?

Multicultural marketing is another name for cultural marketing [see number 41], diversity marketing [see number 51] or ethnic marketing [see number 58]. It's the idea that businesses will have more success if they create alternative campaigns for different cultures.

Need multicultural marketing examples?

McDonald's create separate messaging for their worldwide audience.

Multicultural marketing example

92. Multi-level marketing [MLM]

What is multi-level marketing?

Multi-level marketing is a way of making money through selling products to consumers and by recruiting other people to do the same. Also called network marketing [see number 94], multi-level marketing is more of a business model than a strategy.

The aim is to create two revenue streams. Ideally, profits are generated through straightforward product sales, but also via a network of people in your team that are doing the same. [Team members get different a different % of the revenue depending on which level they’re at, but they can create their own teams too.]

Need multi-level marketing examples?

Arbonne, Herbal Life, Avon and Mary Kay are all MLM companies.

What about multi-level marketing resources?

Would you join a multi-level marketing company?


93. Native marketing

What is native marketing?

Usually found online, native marketing is any kind of advert that matches the look and feel of the media format they're found on.

Basically, native ads aren't supposed to look like ads.

Need native marketing examples?

The paid ads that sit at the top of most Google searches are examples of native advertising. They're pretty subtle - only a small green box identifies the result as an ad.

A set of search results

What about native marketing resources?

A marketer's guide to native advertising

94. Network marketing

What is network marketing?

Network marketing is a marketing strategy that aims to generate revenue from selling goods to customers, but also by building a team of people under you who will do the same.

Network marketing is another name for multi-level marketing [see number 92].

Need network marketing examples?

Forever Living and Juice Plus are well-known network marketing companies.

What about network marketing resources?

Your guide to starting a successful MLM business

95. Neuromarketing

What is neuromarketing?

Neuromarketing is the study of how our brains react to different forms of marketing and this embracing this kind of marketing strategy can be pretty effective.

As copywriters, we know first-hand how important it is to understand what makes us tick.

In fact, for anyone wanting to become a copywriter, we'd recommend initially focusing in this area over developing your writing skills.

Need neuromarketing examples?

In winning the US Presidential election, Donald Trump surprised many people. 

But in reality, should we be that shocked? 

After all, he did a masterful job of manipulating the emotions of the American votes, particularly by scaremongering about their economic futures.

What about neuromarketing resources?

Neuromarketing: tapping into the ‘pleasure center’ of customers

96. New media marketing

What is new media marketing?

New media marketing is marketing through the latest mediums. Whether we’re talking about online trends, social media or digital advertising, new media marketing embraces technology.

Need new media marketing examples?

Many businesses are using innovative things like virtual reality to increase brand awareness.

What about new media marketing resources?

Connecting with a modern audience

97. Newsletter marketing

What is newsletter marketing?

Newsletter marketing is promoting your company through emails.

Need newsletter marketing examples?

Many websites will offer you the chance to sign up to a daily, weekly or monthly newsletter and it's a great way of nurturing a relationship with a potential customer.

What about newsletter marketing resources?

Creating email copy that sells

98. Next-best-action marketing

What is next-best-action marketing?

Next-best-action marketing is about being able to offer a relevant product or service to a customer if they’ve already said no to something else.

The point is, we’ve all passed up on a deal only to be offered something identical further down the line. If we’ve said no once, has something changed now? No, probably not. 

So, businesses that repeatedly advertise the same things in the same way are wasting everyone’s time.

Next-best-action marketing aims to resolve this issue. By intelligently building on the information available, some companies can offer something more apt.

Need next-best-action marketing examples?

Imagine you’ve just bought a new washing machine. The retailer offers you insurance, but you say no. It’s too expensive and if anything does go wrong, it’s the same price to buy a replacement.

If that shop contacts you in 6 month’s time and asks if you’d like to buy insurance, the answer would still be no.

But suppose they offered a cheap tune-up service?

That’s completely different. It’s the next best thing… and the retailer still makes money.

What about next-best-action marketing resources?

Next-best-action: marketing’s best kept secret?

99. Niche marketing

What is niche marketing?

Companies use niche marketing when they spot a gap in the market for a product or service that would only apply to a particular audience. A good product in a niche market can often make more money than an average one in a mass market.

Need niche marketing examples?

By specialising in selling clothes for large men, Jacamo have identified a niche market

What about niche marketing resources?

7 steps to identifying your niche market

100. Non-traditional marketing

What is non-traditional marketing?

Non-traditional marketing is about being daring to be different with your marketing strategies. This approach is risky, but can pay off.

Need non-traditional marketing examples?

To illustrate the difference that Nivea products can make to your skin, Nivea created a very unique sofa and put it in a variety of shopping centres:

Nivea's marketing

What about non-traditional marketing resources?

Defining non-traditional marketing


101. Offensive marketing

What is offensive marketing?

Often unethical, offensive marketing happens when a brand attacks the weaknesses of a competitor whilst highlighting their own strengths. Of course, companies can’t really call out specific rivals, so they usually do it in a roundabout way [where it’s still pretty obvious who they’re referring to].

Need offensive marketing examples?

The easiest and most common form of offensive marketing would be companies that leave fake negative reviews of their competitors.

What about offensive marketing resources?

Aggressive or offensive strategy in business and marketing

102. Offline marketing

What is offline marketing?

Offline marketing is marketing that happens away from the internet, like television commercials, billboards, radio ads, flyers or newspaper pullouts.

Need offline marketing examples?

Walk down the street and you'll see posters at bus stops or in shop windows.

What about offline marketing resources?

10 offline marketing strategies that still work today

103. One-to-one marketing

What is one-to-one marketing?

One-to-one marketing is marketing that interacts directly and independently with a customer. 

Businesses who use one-to-one marketing believe that bespoke, personalised marketing messages are more likely to foster greater customer loyalty.

Need one-to-one marketing examples?

Those of us who have a supermarket loyalty card will get offers and vouchers through the post.

But they’re not just any old offers - they’re offers that are related to the things we usually buy from that store [they know what we buy because they collect the data].

That’s personal, one-to-one marketing.

What about one-to-one marketing resources?

Overview of one-to-one marketing

104. Online marketing

What is online marketing?

Online marketing is any marketing that takes place online. From emails to websites, social media to press releases, it’s all online marketing. Online marketing is the same thing as internet marketing [see number 84].

Need online marketing examples?

Basically, just open up any web browser and you're sure to see some sort of ad.

What about online marketing resources?

The beginner’s guide to online marketing

105. Organisation marketing

What is organisation marketing?

This marketing discipline exists to create, maintain or change a public opinion of an organisation.

Need organisation marketing examples?

The Salvation Army in South Africa was behind some brilliant organization marketing.

A while back, you may remember a photo of a lady in a dress that went viral.

An optical illusion, people saw the dress in 2 ways: it was either gold and white or black and blue.

During the hysteria, the Salvation Army used the photo and added a clever twist to raise awareness of domestic violence against women. 

Organisation marketing example

What about organisation marketing resources?

7 types of organization marketing structures

106. Outbound marketing

What is outbound marketing?

Outbound marketing promotes a product or service to people who weren’t looking to buy anything.

Outbound marketing is the opposite of inbound marketing [see number 75]. 

Need outbound marketing examples?

A billboard is a good example of outbound marketing. 

If you're driving walking around and see a sign advertising food or drink of some sort, that often makes you feel hungry or thirsty [regardless of whether you genuinely are].

What about outbound marketing resources?

What is outbound marketing?

107. Outdoor marketing

What is outdoor marketing?

Outdoor marketing is any kind of marketing that takes place outside.

Need outdoor marketing examples?

A lot of marketing takes place outdoors. There’s billboards, bus stop posters, car stickers, digital advertising, shop signs and much more.

What about outdoor marketing resources?

4 tips for an effective outdoor marketing strategy

108. Out-of-home marketing

What is out-of-home marketing?

Out-of-home marketing is advertising that’s specifically designed to reach customers when they’re not at home.

It’s another name for outdoor marketing [number 107].

Need out-of-home marketing examples?

KitKat came up with a really cool idea for a bench. The slats were made to look like chocolate fingers, whilst half the bench displayed the wrapping.

Out-of-home marketing


109. Partnership marketing

What is partnership marketing?

Partnership marketing is about collaborating with a person or business because they have a relationship with an area of a market that you’re interested in selling to.

By partnering with somebody, you’re able to introduce your brand to a new audience. It's also known as affinity marketing [see number 5].

Need partnership marketing examples?

A while ago, Apple hooked up with Starbucks. 

The deal is pretty simple. Starbucks offer free WiFi to their customers. Apple has iTunes. So what do they do? Apple gives Starbucks customers free access to iTunes music.

What about partnership marketing resources?

Marketing partnerships that every small business should build

110. Pay-per-click [PPC] marketing

What is pay-per-click marketing?

This is any kind of of digital advertising that charges a business every time someone clicks on their ad [irrespective of what subsequent action is taken].

Need pay-per-click marketing examples?

Google Ads is a PPC strategy. A business would create an ad, set a budget and be charged for every click.

What about pay-per-click marketing resources?

The ultimate guide to PPC marketing

111. Performance marketing

What is performance marketing?

Performance marketing is digital marketing that only costs businesses money when it delivers a tangible result. Depending on what a company wants to measure, performance marketing is judged on the number of sales, leads, clicks and impressions.

Need performance marketing examples?

PPC advertising is the very personification of performance marketing. Businesses place adverts on the internet. The most clicks the ad gets, the more they pay.

What about performance marketing resources?

Who will survive the performance marketing revolution?

112. Permission marketing

What is permission marketing?

Permission marketing is selling goods and services to someone who has specifically agreed [in advance] to receive marketing information. Businesses will clearly be able to sell more things to people who are open to be sold to, but the issue with permission marketing is one of scalability.

Need permission marketing examples?

Many digital businesses today use lead magnets.

They offer something of value in return for a prospect’s email address. Prospects know that handing over an email address means that they’re opting in to receive marketing information.

What about permission marketing resources?

Why permission marketing is the future of online advertising

113. Person marketing

What is person marketing?

The goal of person marketing is to create, maintain or change a public opinion of someone. In particular, this strategy is used to promote celebrities, politicians and sports personalities.

Need person marketing examples?

Barack Obama and his PR team showed a lot of creativity and shrewdness when campaigning for his election.

In politics, it's impossible to please everyone, but Obama came pretty close.

What about person marketing resources?

How public relations works

114. Personalised marketing

What is personalised marketing?

Just as it sounds, personalised marketing revolves around creating bespoke messages for customers.

The logic being, the more relevant a business can be to a person, the greater the chance of selling. 

There’s no doubt that personalised marketing is incredibly effective. When people ask me for advice, one of the techniques I recommend is to focus in on one person.

Need personalised marketing examples?

Facebook uses personalised marketing.

From our activities, Facebook learns about the stuff we like and the things we’re interested in. They're able to surface relevant ads for each of their 1.79 billion active users.

What about personalised marketing resources?

Personalized marketing at scale is the next big thing in digital

115. Persuasion marketing

What is persuasion marketing?

Persuasion marketing happens when content creators use what we know about human psychology in order to manipulate how we feel about stuff.

And it's really powerful.

As freelance copywriters, we know that understanding how and why we behave the way we do is incredibly important when it comes to creating effective copy.

It’s very easy for businesses to churn out marketing schtick without any real appreciation of selling.

Ultimately, no matter what the industry, people buy from people. Marketing that accurately grasps how humans think is more likely to work.

Need persuasion marketing examples?

A company that prices something at $9.99 is using persuasion marketing. The perception is that a product at this price costs under £10, so we’re more likely to buy it on impulse. In reality, it's only a penny less.

What about persuasion marketing resources?

6 principles of persuasive marketing

116. Philanthropic marketing

What is philanthropic marketing?

Many businesses give charitably and philanthropic marketing is using this commitment to essentially raise its profile and standing amongst current and prospective customers.

Need philanthropic marketing examples?

Kellogg's offered to donate meals in exchange for retweets, but they suffered a backlash and the cereal giants were accused of having a self-serving agenda. That just proves how charitable gestures need to be well thought through.

What about philanthropic marketing resources?

How to include philanthropy in a marketing mix

117. Place marketing

What is place marketing?

Place marketing to create, maintain or change a public opinion of a place.

Need place marketing examples?

For obvious reasons, place marketing is particularly prevalent in the travel industry.

What about place marketing resources?

How to market a small town

118. Point-of-sale marketing

What is point-of-sale marketing?

Point-of-sale marketing is the strategy of increasing sales at the precise time that someone buys something. It takes place by or near a till and requires signage, merchandise displays and a good offer.

Need point-of-sale marketing examples?

The products offered at the point-of-sale are usually things that shop owners will hope would be an impulse buy. Just head into any supermarket, walk up to the till and you'll see stuff to buy.

What about point-of-sale marketing resources?

5 reasons not to underestimate point-of-sale marketing

119. Post-click marketing

What is post-click marketing?

Post-click marketing is marketing that engages website visitors after they’ve clicked on an online advertisement. Digital marketers are obsessed with how many clicks they can generate. It’s the metric that even the top advertisers love to measure.

But because everyone puts so much emphasis on how to generate traffic, many businesses fail to make the most of their leads once they get them.

Post-click marketing aims to put that right. To put it bluntly, the goal of post-click marketing is to maximize ROI.

Need post-click marketing examples?

Post-click marketing lives or dies by a company’s ability to understand its audience.

By creating an accurate customer persona, a business will make it far easier to turn a browser into a buyer.

With knowledge comes power. All the elements will fall into place: copy, design, offers… everything.

What about post-click marketing resources?

The art of the follow-through

120. PR marketing

What is PR marketing?

PR marketing is working with the media in order to increase brand or product awareness.

Need PR marketing examples?

Apple always made a big deal out of every product launch. Here’s Steve Jobs announcing the iPhone at MacWorld way back in 2007:

What about PR marketing resources?

Get the word out with PR

121. Product marketing

What is product marketing?

Product marketing is a type of marketing that tries to drive demand and usage of a product.

It’s quite a broad term. For some people, it means marketing product features effectively. Equally, for others, product marketing is also about analysing the competitive landscape in a market.

Need product marketing examples?

Of course, if you’re clever, it’s possible to communicate product features and industry USPs simultaneously.

Once again, look no further than Apple and how they market the iPhone.

What about product marketing resources?

The 10 commandments of product marketing

122. Promotional marketing

What is promotional marketing?

Promotional marketing aims to give customers an extra reason for purchasing a product or service. Typical promotional marketing strategies would include contests, giveaways, discounts and samples.

Need prmootional marketing examples?

Black Friday is a global example of promotional marketing.

What about promotional marketing resources?

The Institute of Promotional Marketing

123. Proximity marketing

What is proximity marketing?

Proximity marketing takes place when businesses are able to communicate with consumers when they’re on the go. It utilizes location technology [like Bluetooth or WiFi] and allows companies to connect with the public if they have a portable device [like a smartphone]. 

Proximity marketing is often effective because it helps businesses deliver more relevant advertising.

Need proximity marketing examples?

Macy’s deliver personalized deals, recommendations and rewards to customers when they’re in a store [assuming they’ve opted in and agreed to this]. 

What about proximity marketing resources?

How proximity marketing is driving retail sales

124. Pull marketing

What is pull marketing?

Pull marketing is any form of marketing that generates leads in a non-intrusive way. It’s the opposite of push marketing [see number 125].

Need pull marketing examples?

Creating a Facebook group and delivering useful content to that community for free is a form of pull marketing. 

What about pull marketing resources?

5 essential ingredients for truly effective pull marketing

125. Push marketing

What is push marketing?

Push marketing is an aggressive, intrusive marketing strategy that pushes a product or service onto an audience who may not have been aware of it previously. It’s the opposite of pull marketing [see number 124].

Need push marketing examples?

You’ll see push marketing campaigns whenever a brand has created a new product line.

What about push marketing resources?

Why you need push and pull marketing


126. Real-time marketing

What is real-time marketing?

Real-time marketing is any marketing strategy that uses up-to-date information. You can’t plan real-time marketing. Instead, a real-time marketing strategy must be focused on current trends.

Need real-time marketing examples?

An exit intent pop-up on a website is a good example. Pop-ups exist to capture information about a prospective customer, such as a phone number or email address.

Businesses then use that information to market stuff.

An exit intent pop-up is a pop-up that surfaces when a website visitor appears to be leaving a website [maybe their cursor is hovering near a close button].

Something of value is marketed to a user because of their behavior on a website. They’re just about to leave so, in real-time, one more marketing effort is made.

What about real-time marketing resources?

The increasing importance of real-time marketing

127. Referral marketing

What is referral marketing?

Referral marketing is using an existing customer to bring in new customers. Also known as word-of-mouth marketing [see number 162], referral marketing is extremely powerful, but success hard to predict. 

Need referral marketing examples?

Here’s referral marketing in action:

Yesware marketing

Yesware is a SaaS company and there are 2 reasons why this is a great example of referral marketing. 

Firstly, the reward for the person doing the referring is both relevant and valuable.

Secondly, the referral message is pre-populated, meaning that all the hard work has been done. Yesware make it as easy as possible to refer them. 

What about referral marketing resources?

Why referral marketing is awesome

128. Relationship marketing

What is relationship marketing?

Relationship marketing is about establishing, maintaining and nurturing relationships with consumers. It’s a long-term play that focuses on customer loyalty and engagement, rather than acquisition.

The logic behind relationship marketing is that it will deliver repeat customers who will generate more revenue than a one-off sale. It also works because common sense dictates that it costs more to acquire new customers than it does to keep the ones you’ve got happy. 

Need relationship marketing examples?

Do you get vouchers from your local supermarket? Or emails from a company on your birthday? That’s relationship marketing.

What about relationship marketing resources?

How to build a large, profitable network

129. Remarketing

What is remarketing?

Remarketing helps businesses communicate with people who have previously visited a website. 

It’s powerful because if someone has been on a website before, they’re predisposed to that brand. In other words, they’re warm prospects. 

Need remarketing examples?

When you’re running a Facebook ad campaign, you can choose to show ads to people who have visited your website in the last 180 days.

What about remarketing resources?

The full guide to remarketing

130. Reply marketing

What is reply marketing?

Reply marketing is marketing that prompts people to respond quickly if they want to take advantage of an offer.

Need reply marketing examples?

How many times have you been asked to ‘buy soon’, ‘download now’ or ‘hurry up’?

What about reply marketing resources?

What is reply marketing?

131. Retail marketing

What is retail marketing?

Retail marketing is the promotion of goods and services in a retail environment. It’s a very broad term that covers branding, pricing, packaging and promotions.

Retail marketing is another name for shopper marketing [see number 140].

Need retail marketing examples?

When you’re offered 2 items for the price of 1, that’s retail marketing.

What about retail marketing resources?

The 5 principles of retail

132. Reverse marketing

What is reverse marketing?

Rather than actively promoting a specific brand, product or service, reverse marketing aims to encourage people to seek out a business, product or service of their own accord.

In other words, reverse marketing doesn’t exist to convince someone to buy something. Instead, it causes intrigue and attracts interest.

Need reverse marketing examples?

Clothing company Patagonia created a clever reverse marketing strategy in 2011. Their collateral carried the headline 'Don't buy this jacket'. Intriguing, certainly.

What about reverse marketing resources?

How does reverse marketing work?


133. Scarcity marketing

What is scarcity marketing?

Scarcity marketing is marketing that capitalizes on a customer’s fear of missing out on something. It’s based on the psychological principle that people want what is difficult to acquire.

Stores always have sales that are ‘ending soon’. Or they offer discounts that expire on a certain date. Some only create a limited range of products. Have you ever seen a sign saying ‘hurry while stocks last’?

Need scarcity marketing examples?

When you’re booking a train ticket from Bournemouth to London, you can see how many tickets are left:

Train times

This is scarcity marketing. Noticed how the copy is in red – it really stands out. Plus, red stands for danger. This is a warning: if I don’t book soon, I may miss out…

What about scarcity marketing resources?

13 examples of scarcity marketing in action

134. Scientific marketing

What is scientific marketing?

Scientific marketing is the discipline of improving ROI by analyzing and testing market data and statistics.

Need scientific marketing examples?

Market research is a form of scientific marketing.

Suppose a business was launching a new drink. If it conducted market research, then the more information it gathered, the more likely it is to create a marketing strategy that resonates with my target audience.

What about scientific marketing resources?

10 truths about scientific marketing

135. Seasonal marketing

What is seasonal marketing?

Season marketing is marketing products or services at certain points of the year. That could be Christmas, Easter or Thanksgiving, but seasonal marketing doesn’t have to coincide with an ‘official’ event.

Many businesses will flourish at certain points in the year and struggle at others. [We don’t buy sun lotion during the winter, right?]

Need seasonal marketing examples?

For florists, seasonal marketing is incredibly important. Take Valentine’s Day, for instance.

What about seasonal marketing resources?

Adapt your marketing strategies for seasonal trading

136. Search marketing

What is search marketing?

Search marketing is generating traffic and leads from appearing in search engine results. Search marketing can either use free or paid strategies.

Search marketing tactics won’t cost a thing if you implement search engine optimisation [or SEO] techniquesThe alternative is to pay search engines to advertise in potentially lucrative positions online.

Need search marketing examples?

Just fire up Google and enter anything. You'll probably see a mixture of organic and paid-for results.

What about search marketing resources?

What is search marketing?

137. Self-marketing

What is self-marketing?

Self-marketing is the process of promoting a person rather than a product. It’s effective because leads are more likely to buy from a person that they know and trust than from a faceless brand.

Need self-marketing examples?

Sir Richard Branson is well known for outlandish marketing stunts, but he’s been incredibly successful at marketing himself over the years.

What about self-marketing resources?

10 stealthy techniques for self-promotion

138. Services marketing

What is services marketing?

Marketing is divided into 2 areas, goods marketing [see number 70] and services marketing. Basically, services marketing is any marketing technique that’s applied in a service-based industry.

But the term ‘service’ is pretty broad. By service industry, I mean any place where a service is offered from one party to another. That could be anything from banking, accountancy and retail, through to search engine optimization, copywriting and advertising.

Need services marketing examples?

If you see any kind of advert from a company that has a service to sell, that's services marketing in action.

What about services marketing resources?

The 7 ps of services marketing

139. Shadow marketing

What is shadow marketing?

Shadow marketing is the act of cutting corners with your marketing because, for one reason or another, you can’t execute your campaign properly.

If you can’t spare the time to make a brochure look nice, you might have to rush the job. Perhaps you don’t have access to adequate resources, so instead of including stylish artwork in your brochure, you use low quality stock images.

Maybe you have to resort to more underhand tactics. If you’ve seen a nice brochure online, could you just copy that? Regardless, shadow marketing is still something you hope won’t come back to bite you.

Need shadow marketing examples?

Suppose an event manager has a big project on the go. Because of the stress and pressure involved, he or she may not have time to market themselves adequately.

However, marketing is still essential, since that project will end sooner or later. The upshot may be some shadow marketing.

What about shadow marketing resources?

The frightening truth about shadow marketing

140. Shopper marketing

What is shopper marketing?

Shopper marketing is the art of promoting goods or services in a retail environment. It’s the same as retail marketing [see number 127].

Need shopper marketing examples?

Shopper marketing is designed to influence consumers at every level. Suppose you were looking to buy a new car, you went to a garage and saw a poster advertising money off of a car service.

What about shopper marketing resources?

A shopper marketing cheat sheet

141. Shotgun marketing

What is shotgun marketing?

Shotgun marketing is the theory of marketing to as many people as possible.

It’s another term for mass marketing [number 89]. Shotgun marketing usually attracts a large number of leads, but they’re usually of a lower quality.

Need shotgun marketing examples?

Let’s say that a business wanted to increase its email subscribers, so it runs a competition where it gives away a free iPad in exchange for signing up to receive SEO tips.

They may get 1,000s of entries, but the majority will just be people who want to win a free iPad. They probably won’t have any interest in SEO and will probably unsubscribe from the newsletter immediately.

That’s a poor result. They will have paid for the iPad and the cost of advertising the competition, but ultimately have little to show for it.

What about shotgun marketing resources?

Are you guilty of shotgun marketing?